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Search Symbol (Half-width) Description of Search Symbols
Space "AND" indicates the intertwining of key terms used in a search
Double Quotation Marks ("") ( " " ) Double quotation marks indicate the beginning and end of a phrase, and the search will only include terms that appear in the same order of those within the quotations. Example: "image process" : " image process "
? Indicates a variable letter. Entering two ? will indicate two variable letters, and so on. Example: "Appl?", search results will yield apple, apply… e , appl y … ( (often used to English word searches) )
* Indicates an unlimited number of variable letters to follow, from 1~n. Example: Enter "appl*", search results will yield apple, apples, apply, applied, application…(often used in English word searches) e , appl es , appl y , appl ied , appl ication … ( (often used to English word searches) )

Boolean logic combinations of key words is a skill used to expand or refine search parameters.
(1) AND (1) AND: Refines search parameters
(2) OR (2) OR: Expands search parameters (3) NOT: Excludes irrelevant parameters


DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier ( D igital O bject I dentifier ) ,
and is the unique identifier for objects on the internet. It can be used to create persistent link and to cite articles.

Using DOI as a persistent link

To create a persistent link, add「」 「 」 before a DOI.
For instance, if the DOI of an article is 10.5297/ser.1201.002 , you can link persistently to the article by entering the following link in your browser: 10.5297/ser.1201.002
The DOI link will always direct you to the most updated article page no matter how the publisher changes the document's position, avoiding errors when engaging in important research.

Cite a document with DOI

When citing references, you should also cite the DOI if the article has one. If your citation guideline does not include DOIs, you may cite the DOI link.

DOIs allow accurate citations, improve academic contents connections, and allow users to gain better experience across different platforms. Currently, there are more than 70 million DOIs registered for academic contents. If you want to understand more about DOI, please visit airiti DOI ) 。

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Reference ( 208 ) 〈TOP〉
  1. 行政院衛生署國民健康局(2006)。94年度國民運動行為調查結果統計表。2010 年12月15日,取自:
  2. 江淑卿、陳昱蓁、潘于君(2008)。幼稚園與二年及兒童速度概念之微觀發展研究。臺北市立教育大學學報 教育類,39(1),61-95。
  3. 李月萍與黃惠子(2014)。老年生活品質概念與測量應用。臺灣老年醫學暨老年學雜誌,9(3),57-67。
  4. 李守義、蔡慈儀、蔡憶文、郭耿南(2012)。「中文健康適能評估量表」簡式量表的發展與效度檢測。臺灣衛誌,31(2),184-193。
  5. 李庚霖、區雅倫、陳淑惠、翁儷禎(2009)。「臺灣地區中老年身心社會生活狀況長期追蹤調查」短版CES-D量表之心理計量特性。中華心理衛生學刊,22(4),383-410。
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