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A Study of Smallpox Vaccination in Primary School Children

關於國民學校兒童種痘之研究

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Abstracts


在1946~1947年間,臺灣還有天花的流行。但從1955年以後這可怕的傳染病已經有效地被控制而事實上絕跡了。這是一方面由於檢疫及病人隔離的嚴格施行另一方面由於種痘工作的普遍推廣而得來的。今後該病能否繼續地被控制實依賴於種痘工作的能否有效的施行而保持人口的對該病免疫狀態而定。 著者等為明瞭最近的國民學校兒童對該病免疫狀態,就臺北市東門國民學校兒童1,637名施行再種痘而觀察其種痘後反應。同時每1個學童以切創法(Scratch method)及複壓法(Multiple Pressure method)兩個方法接種並比較其方法之優劣。我們得到結論如下: 1.國民學校兒童對天花的免疫度相當高,98%以上的兒童被證明保有高度及中度之免疫。這是由於對一年以下之小兒的普遍的種痘及在國民學校時期的定期種痘之結果。 2.對於天花的免疫性而言由於入學後的1~3次種痘,六年級四年級及一年級間級越高其免疫性亦高。 3.男女學童間之免疫狀態不能看出顯著之差別。 4.可能由於入學前種痘經歷不同本省人在一年級時再種痘陽性率比外省人為高。但經過學校內再種痘後其省別差異顯著地減低。 5.學童之再種痘時複壓法比切創法為優,但其差異並不大所以不應該改變現行之方法。

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Parallel abstracts


During 1946~1947 an epidemic of smallpox occurred in Taiwan, but it was quickly and effectively controlled. From then on a mass island-wide vaccination was carried out each year, and since 1955 not a single case of smallpox has been reported on the Island. Since 1956 the Provincial Health Administration started a vaccination program2 for the purpose of maintaining the immune state of the population against this disease. According to the plan, one third of the whole population is to be vaccinated every three years. However, no standard technique is used for the vaccination. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immune state of children in a primary school in Taipei City through revaccination using both the multiple pressure and the single linear scratch methods.

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