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Engaged Buddhism and Literature: The Art for Peace in Michael Ondaatje's Anil's Ghost

人間佛教和文學:翁達傑《阿尼爾的魅影》的和平藝術

Abstracts


學界並未探討翁達傑〈Michael Ondaatje〉的《阿尼爾的魅影》〈Anil's Ghost〉如何呼應斯里蘭卡人間佛教的推動者阿里耶拉〈A.T. Ariyaratne〉所主導的薩佛陀耶〈Sarvodaya〉運動,藉以消弭種族內戰。翁達傑和薩佛陀耶都視精神改革為物質改革的基礎:從自覺而全覺。自覺為個人對再現、共生,及寬恕的體認;全覺以社會底層為權力和改革的起點,重建具佛教精神的古老價值體系。在斯里蘭卡的傳統佛教淪為集體身份的口號之際,翁達傑用文學達成佛教的深刻教誨。他把各主要人物化為足以推展和平的巧匠,並且把他們源自殖民遺毒的痛苦聚集於阿尼爾的魅影,展現了文學凌駕俗世和平運動的獨特創造力。

Keywords

薩佛陀耶 自覺 全覺 共生 寬恕

Parallel abstracts


Little attention has been paid to the significant connection of engaged Buddhism to Michael Ondaatje's Anil's Ghost (2000). This author argues that Ondaatje takes advantage of A. T. Ariyaratne's Sarvodaya Movement to ground his solution to the Sri Lankan ethnic war. The solution starts with self-awakening and ends in all-awakening. Self-awakening involves the ability to go beyond representation, to recognize the interdependence of living beings, and to forgive the enemy. Ondaatje thereby aims to deal with war at its source: the hierarchical demarcation and the accumulation of mutual hatred. Because capitalism and central government, an inheritance from the Western colonization, contribute to the war, all-awakening begins a social reform that has power not on the top in the social hierarchy, but at the bottom, and that works from the bottom up to create an anti-capitalist society of traditional value system. This progress from self-awakening to all-awakening and the reform of society from the bottom up form the Sarvodaya Movement's political agenda, too. Ondaatje's special contribution lies in making Buddhist understanding artistically accessible at a time when the traditional Buddhism in Sri Lanka has become a slogan for collective identity. Also, by turning all the main characters into artificers, by compressing in Anil's ghost individuals' sufferings and sacrifices that stem from a national past, Ondaatje demonstrates how literature can effectively supplement an earthly peace movement with imaginary creation.

References


Ariyaratne, A. T.(1996).Buddhism and Sarvodaya: Sri Lankan Experience..
Ariyaratne, A. T.,Christopher S.,Sallie B. King(1999)."Sarvodaya Shramadana‵s Approach to Peacebuilding.".
Bond, George D.,Steven Totosy de Zepetnek(1996).A. T. Ariyaratne and the Sarvodaya Shramadana Movement in Sri Lanka.(Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist Liberation Movement in Asia).
Bond, George D.(2004).(Buddhism at Work: community Development, Social Empowerment and the Sarvodaya Movement).
Breslin, John.(2001)."War on Several Fronts".(Rev, of Anil‵s Ghost).

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