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下坪熱帶植物園之粉蝨及蚜蟲相調查初報

A Preliminary Investigation of the Whitefly and Aphid Fauna in Xiaping Tropical Botanical Garden

Abstracts


粉蝨及蚜蟲在農、林業一直都被視為經濟重要性的小型害蟲,但對於取食熱帶樹種的粉蝨及蚜蟲類之多樣性及危害程度的研究甚少。因此本研究對位於南投縣竹山鎮臺大實驗林管轄之下坪熱帶植物園內的木本植物進行全面性的粉蝨及蚜蟲危害每木調查,於2019年8月間執行,記錄受害寄主植物地點(GPS定位)、害蟲及受害寄主植物種類、害蟲取食部位及危害次數等資料。粉蝨及蚜蟲的物種鑑定均以形態特徵為主,並以桌上型掃描式電子顯微鏡(Tabletop Scanning Electron Microscope,SEM)技術對所採集的害蟲作形態鑑定,此技術不但省時省力且可提供高準確率的鑑定。本次調查結果在2,164棵木本植物上發現109棵木本植物有27種害蟲危害,其中可鑑定至種共25種,包括粉蝨類11種、蚜蟲類14種,其發生危害率分別為2.82%、2.22%。此27種害蟲中,龐達巢粉蝨(Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi)是園區內發生最普遍的粉蝨種類,危害高達19種植物,其次為螺旋粉蝨(Aleurodicus dispersus Russell),危害7種植物;而蚜蟲種類則以小桔蚜(Aphis(Toxoptera)aurantii Boyerde Fonscolombe)較常見,危害高達4種植物,其次為圓體網體蝨蚜(Reticulaphis distylii van der Goot),危害2種植物。本研究結果除了建立園區內所發現之粉蝨及蚜蟲名錄之外,也提供2種最常發現的粉蝨及蚜蟲類之外部形態描述、生態照及SEM圖像等資料。另外依據SEM圖像為基礎針對10種粉蝨之第4齡若蟲製作簡易檢索表,可提供害蟲鑑定之相關資訊,並根據園區內粉蝨及蚜蟲的危害率進行討論,最後提出綜合性蟲害管理之策略性建議。

Parallel abstracts


Whitefly and aphid are the two major groups of hemipteran insects that had always been regarded as the most economically important tiny pests in crop and forestry production. However, there has been little research about the diversity of whitefly and aphid species feeding on tropical tree species and the degree of associated damages. Therefore, we surveyed whitefly and aphid fauna on woody plants of Xiaping Tropical Botanical Garden of the Experimental Forest of National Taiwan University, Nantou County in August 2019. We recorded survey time, the damaged plant's location using GPS system, pest and plant species name and pest feeding sites. Pest identification was primarily based on morphological characteristics. In this study, Tabletop Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) was used for identifying whitefly and aphid species collected in the park, because this technique is extremely efficient and useful for studying the morphology of tiny insect with high accuracy in identification and excellent morphological overview. The results of this survey showed that out of 2,164 woody plants in the park, a total of 109 woody plants were found damaged by 27 pest species. There were 25 pest species being identified, including 11 whitefly species and 14 aphid species with infestation rates of 2.82% and 2.22%, respectively. Among them, Paraleyrodes bondari Peracchi was the most common whitefly group in the park that caused 19 tree species damaged, followed by Aleurodicus dispersus Russell that damaged 7 tree species. Besides, Aphis (Toxoptera) aurantii Boyer de Fonscolombe was the most common aphid group in the park that had damaged 4 tree species, followed by Reticulaphis distylii van der Goot that damaged 2 tree species. The results of this study can be used to collate the checklist of whitefly and aphid collected in Xiaping Tropical Botanical Garden, and provide photographs, SEM images, external morphological descriptions for 2 of the most commonly found whitefly and aphid species in the park. Moreover, based on the SEM images of 10 whitefly species in 4^(th) instar nymphs described in a simple identification key, it serves as a guidance for researchers to provide important and practical references for pest identification. Finally, based on the infestation rates of whitefly and aphids in the park, we provided strategic recommendations for integrated pest management.

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