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Antioxidant Relevance to Human Health

抗氧化物與人類健康

Abstracts


人類生態需要氧氣及水分,藉由氧化磷酸化作用,用於從食物產生立即能量-ATP。考量氧化壓力及氧化物在對抗感染、組織修補及傳遞訊息的關鍵角色,氧化及抗氧化作用間的不斷平衡,對生命體維持較長久的健全是必要的。抗氧化物能力衍生自外生性(來自食物、飲料及陽光)及內生性(來自酵素及非酵素路徑)。一些具氧化力的食物因子輔助含金屬的抗氧化酵素,在細胞外與細胞內運作。尿酸是靈長類血液中主要的抗氧化物。尿酸合成因來自水果、含糖食物及飲料的膳食果糖而增加。水果的這項間接抗氧化作用與來自於異黃酮的效應是分開的。飲酒也會增加血清尿酸。且尿酸鹽過多及留滯與疾病有關。由於尿酸具可能效益及危險性,使得東北亞地區高盛行率的高尿酸血症在公共衛生上是兩難的。含高抗氧化力的食物,包括莓果、堅果與豆類、番茄及甘薯葉。這些食物中的每種抗氧化物具多效性,諸如抗發炎作用、抗血管增生或是抗腫瘤。再者,食物基質及飲食模式將關係到抗氧化物攝取的安全性。迄今沒有證據顯示,分離抗氧化物當做食品補充劑,可改善健康或是存活狀況;更有一些顯示有無法接受的風險。抗氧化物雖可被視為食物的生物標記,但無法以此推證它們被純化使用的結果。儘管如此,膳食中的各樣多效能抗氧化物,對組織、代謝及免疫系統是有助益的。

Keywords

氧化物 尿酸 毒性 補充劑 多效功用

Parallel abstracts


Human ecology requires both oxygen and water with the generation from food of an immediate energy source, ATP, by oxidative phosphorylation. A continuing balance between oxidation and antioxidation is necessary for longer less-disabled lives, taking account of oxidative stresses and the critical roles of oxidants in defence against infection, tissue repair and signalling. Antioxidant capacity is derived both exogenously (from food, beverage and sunlight) and endogenously (from enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways). A number of oxidant food factors service antioxidant metallo-enzymes. The capacity operates extra- or intracellularly. Uric acid is the major antioxidant in primate blood. Uric acid synthesis is increased by dietary fructose from fruit, sugary foods and drinks. This indirect antioxidant effect of fruit is separate from that attributable to its flavonoids. Alcohol also increases serum uric acid. Urate excess and retention is associated with disease. The high prevalence of hyperuricaemia in NE Asia presents a major public health dilemma in regard to putative benefits and risks. Foods with high antioxidant activity include berries, nuts and legumes, tomatoes and sweet potato leaves. Each of the antioxidants in these foods is pleiotropic being inter-alia anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic or anti-neoplastic. Moreover, food matrices and patterns contribute to the safety of antioxidant consumption. There is no evidence to date that isolated antioxidants as food supplements improve health outcomes or survival; and some that indicate unacceptable risk. Their use as biomarkers of food cannot justify their isolated use. Nevertheless, a spectrum of dietary pluripotential antioxidants for tissues, metabolic and immune systems is advantageous.

Parallel keywords

oxidants uric acid toxicity supplements pleiotropic functions

References


Li Y, Guo H, Wu M, Liu M. Serum and dietary antioxidant status is associated with lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in a study in Shanghai, China. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22:60-8.
Wu S, Li F, Huang X, Hua Q, Huang T, Liu Z, et al. The association of tea consumption with bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22:128-37.
Chen J. An original discovery: selenium deficiency and Keshan disease (an endemic heart disease). Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2012;21:320-6.
Tsai YT, Liu JP, Tu YK, Lee MS, Chen PR, Hsu HC, Chen MF, Chien KL. Relationship between dietary patterns and serum uric acid concentrations among ethnic Chinese adults in Taiwan. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2012;21:263-70.
Bolling BW, McKay DL, Blumberg JB. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant actions of tree nuts. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2010;19:117-23.

Cited by


Wahlqvist, M. L. (2014). Ecosystem Health Disorders-Changing Perspectives in Clinical Medicine and Nutrition. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 23(1), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.2014.23.1.20

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