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Food Sources of Weight, Calories, and Three Macro-nutrients-NAHSIT 1993-1996

臺灣地區成人攝取的食物總重量、熱量及三大營養的食物來源-NAHSIT 1993-1996


國八十二年七月至八十五年六月所進行的「國民營養健康狀況變遷調查」,採分層多段集束隨機取樣法,抽取臺灣地區七層21鄉鎮且季節平衡的獨立樣本。本報告係根據該調查中,19~64歲的獨立樣本3,915人(男1,963人,女1,952人),由24小時飲食回憶法所獲得的資料加以分析,以探討臺灣地區不同性別成人每天所攝取的各類食物總重量、每類食物所供應的熱量值及三大營養素的食物來源。由分析結果顯示:(1) 臺灣地區19~64歲成人每天各類食物的攝取量,男性與女性分別為1821克與1373克。所供應的食物重量,男性以點心零食類、蔬菜類、五穀根莖類為主要來源;女性則以蔬菜類、水果類、五穀根莖類為主要來源。(2) 在成人每天各類食物供應的熱量值方面,男女性均以五穀根莖類及家畜類為熱量的主要來源,此外,點心零食類、其他蛋白質類與油脂類在熱量供應上亦扮演-重要角色。(3) 在分析三大營養素的食物來源方面:臺灣地區成年男性每天攝取13.2份的主食類(相當於3.3碗飯),3份的油脂類,6.4份的肉魚蛋豆類,0.3份的奶製品類,3份的蔬菜類,1份的水果類;成年女性每天攝取9份的主食類(相當於2.3碗飯),3份的油脂類,4.5份的肉魚蛋豆類,0.4份奶製品類,3份的蔬菜類,1.2份的水果類。若與衛生署建議的飲食指南加以比較,此一飲食型態反映出:蔬菜消耗適當;肉魚蛋豆類消耗過高;主食類、水果、奶製品攝取不足;油脂類的攝取量雖只有3份,但飲食中的總脂肪攝取量依然超過衛生署的30%建議量。這是由於在醣類攝取較低的情況下,相對攝取較多的不可見脂肪、加工與市售食品所致。由於蛋白質與脂肪的主要來源皆為豬肉類及其製品;而醣類的主要食物來源為五穀根莖類,點心零食類次之、水果類再次之。因此建議:減少豬肉及其製品的攝取,以減少脂肪的攝影量;多攝取主食類取代飲食中空熱量的食物;增加奶製品與水果的攝取量,以獲得更均衡的飲食。本研究結果將可作為日後改飲食指南的參考尤其在油脂類與相關食物類方面。

Parallel abstracts

The purpose of this study was to understand how various food groups contributed to food weights, calories, and three macro-nutrients in Taiwanese diet, using data from the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan (NAHSIT) gathered during July, 1993 to June, 1996. Among 9,962 samples, 3,915 24-hour recalls were obtained from sampled adults aged 19 to 64. Foods consumed daily weighed on average 1,821g and 1,373g for males and females, respectively. In terms of food weights, the major food groups consumed by males were refreshment and snacks; vegetables; and cereals, grains, tubers, and roots; while the major food groups consumed by females were vegetables; fruits; and cereals, grains, tubers, and roots. Cereals, grains, tubers, and roots and meats were the two major calorie sources for both males and females. Food groups such as refreshments and snacks; protein foods other than meat, and fish; and fats and oils provided less but substantial amount of calories. In the analyses of food sources of macro-nutrients, we found that the Taiwanese diet provided for men 13.2 exchanges of cereals, grains, tubers, or roots (approximating 3.3 bowls of rice); 1 tablespoon of cooking fats or oils; 6.4 exchanges of meats, fish, legumes, or eggs; 0.3 exchange of dairy products; 3 exchanges of vegetables; and 1 exchange of fruits. It provided for women 9 exchanges of cereals, grains, tubers, or roots (approximating 2.3 bowls of rice); 1 tablespoon of cooking fats or oils; 4.5 exchanges of meats, fish, legumes, or eggs; 0.4 exchange of dairy products; 3 exchanges of vegetables; and 1.2 exchanges of fruits. Comparing to Taiwan dietary guidelines, these dietary patterns were adequate in vegetable consumption, high in the meats, fish, legumes, and eggs group but low in the cereals, grains, tubers, and roots; fruits; and dairy groups. Although the data showed a mean of 1 tablespoon of cooking oils and fats consumed by each individual, dietary fat in Taiwanese diet was above the upper ceiling of the recommended 30% of total calories. This was probably due to relatively low carbohydrate intake and increased consumption of invisible fats and processed / purchased foods in which fats and oils could not be easily quantified. The pork and pork products group was the major contributor of not only dietary protein but also fat. Carbohydrate intake primarily came from food categories of cereals, grains, tubers, and roots; refreshment and snack foods; and fruits in that order. Therefore, modification should be considered to reduce the amount and the fat content of the pork products consumed, to replace empty calories of refreshment and snack by cereals and grains, and to increase dairy products, and fruits to achieve a more balanced diet for Taiwanese. In addition, pragmatic consideration should be given to the daily dietary guidelines concerning the fats and oils and related food groups.

Cited by

Liu, Y. T. (2009). 利用頂空固相微萃取技術分析食物中之呋喃 [master's thesis, National Taiwan University]. Airiti Library. https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU.2009.03057