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齊梁士人的交遊-以任昉的社交網絡為中心的考察

Literati's Social Relationships during Qi-Liang China: A Case Study on Ren Fang and His Social Network

Abstracts


本文採取個案研究的方式,以任昉(460-508)及其社交網絡為例,探討齊梁士人的交遊活動所具有的社會與政治功能、交遊所建構的人際關係特質,以及交遊活動反映的士人文化。試圖從門第之外的角度觀察士人身分感與政治資本的取得,突顯南朝中後期士族社會的變化。所獲幾點結論如下: 一、參與交遊是士人建立身分認同、凝聚我輩意識的重要管道;士人藉由篩選交遊對象,或與同遊者齊名並比,定位自己在士人社群中的位置。 二、交遊也是仕宦晉升的重要媒介。眾多具有任官資格的官員候補人,在交遊場域尋求表現機會,建立名聲;交遊領袖的稱揚與推薦,成為士人脫穎而出、獲得辟召、舉薦升遷的重要參考。 三、交遊亦支撐齊梁時期主要的文化活動。士人於交遊場合創作詩文、辯論文義、考較才學,展現作為士人的文化涵養;對於個人才學的重視不僅視為交遊、謀仕的工具,更成為評價個人生命價值的重要指標。 四、交遊所建立的人際關係疏密不一,領袖為士子揄揚名聲,士子推奉依附領袖,功利性的遊處十分普遍;同遊者之間相似的才學背景,以及對於名聲、仕宦的共同追求,讓士人間的互動關係可能既是知己也是競爭對手。 五、士人對於名聲的重視,也反映在友道的展現方式。在從遊領袖或知己亡故之後,士友往往有意識地藉由流傳著作、編纂文集或書寫墓誌銘等紀念文章,為友人追求不朽名聲。

Keywords

任昉 交遊 士人 名聲 仕宦

Parallel abstracts


This article adopts the case study approach on Ren Fang (任昉) and his social network to examine the social and political functions of social relationships. The characteristics of friendship established in the social relationship, as well as the culture values of the literati. Besides having been a member of an elite clan, how did he build up a sense of his identity as a literati and acquire much more political capital than others? Through Ren's social relationships, this article highlights the literati's image in the Qi-Liang dynasties. The study produced the following findings: 1. To manage social relationships was an important procedure for literati to build up social identity and self-awareness. 2. It was also an important stage for literati to earn an excellent reputation and increase opportunities to become an official. 3. During this period, most of the cultural activities involved social relationships. Rich talent and extensive learning of literati were not just instruments of seeking official careers, but also had become an important quality to evaluate individual values of life. 4. Friendships established by social relationship were diverse, but eagerness to benefit from the interactions was one of the distinct characteristics. Literati of the same social group often had similar learning backgrounds and the same desire for an official career. Therefore, they were soulmates but also competitors. 5. For literati, there was no end to the quest for immortal fame. After one's death, his friends might compile his compositions to distribute his fame around the world, or write epitaphs and other memorial words to honor him.

Parallel keywords

Ren Fang任昉 social relationship literati fame official career

References


北齊顏之推撰、王利器集解(1993)。顏氏家訓集解。北京:中華書局。
宋司馬光(1956)。資治通鑑。北京:中華書局。
南朝宋范曄(1965)。後漢書。北京:中華書局。
南朝梁沈約撰、陳慶元校箋(1995)。沈約集校箋。杭州:浙江古籍出版社。
南朝梁蕭子顯(1972)。南齊書。北京:中華書局。

Cited by


趙立新(2010)。南朝宗室政治與仕宦結構:以皇弟皇子府參軍為中心〔博士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU.2010.02415

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