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實踐哲學的檢證邏輯

The Logics of Verification in Practical Philosophy

Abstracts


在中國哲學方法論討論的進程中,知識論的討論始終是較缺乏的,本文之作,針對知識論中的檢證問題進行討論,特別針對東方實踐哲學這種類型的哲學理論,並且認為,這是人類哲學史上的新問題,與過去西方思辨傳統的知識論討論,有截然不同的新觀點。就檢證而言,可以談創教者如何查知其說?而研究者如何定位其說的真理意涵?以及學習者如何可說已達到了創教者所界定的境界?首先,就創教者言,他必須有自己的實踐才有宇宙論、本體論、工夫論、境界論的提出,然後供後人學習。也正因此,無有所謂對它教的理論的否證之可能,因為都是發生在自己的經驗內事而已。至於己說能否為公眾所接受?這也因為人類社會的價值立場差異,亦無有被所有人肯定的可能,關鍵在於,於本體論之觀念是來自理想價值選擇後的智悟獨斷,於宇宙論的知識也是來自相應價值心靈的修養而後開啟的宇宙奧秘,無此理想心靈者,永無開啟的可能。本文之討論,從問題意識的界定開始,旁及對二十世紀的當代中國哲學家的理論貢獻做型態定位,然後從創作者、研究者、學習者的不同身分立場,進行檢證學派理論的討論,並且區分從此在世界建立理論體系的系統之檢證原理,以及對於有它在世界觀的哲學體系進行檢證的原理的討論的種種差異。本文之作,確乎是中國哲學方法論上未及討論過的問題,宜有開闊學術領域的貢獻意義在。

Keywords

方法論 宇宙論 本體論 工夫論 境界論 知識論

Parallel abstracts


During the discussion of the methodologies of Chinese philosophy, the discussion about epistemology has been kind of lacking. In this article, we talk about the issue of verification in epistemology, particularly with regards to such types of philosophical theories as oriental practical theories; moreover, we believe that this is a new issue in the history of philosophy and a brand new perspective that's different from the epistemological discussion of the western tradition of speculation. In terms of verification, how do the founders of religions verify their doctrines? How does a scholar verify the truthfulness of his theories? And how does a student verify that he has reached the spiritual state that the religion founder defined? First of all, the religion founder has to have his own practice before he proposes his cosmology, ontology as well as his theories about cultivation and spiritual states for the future generations to learn from. For this particular reason, it's impossible to falsify the theories of other religions, since all the theories are the results of ones' own experiences, and whether these theories are accepted by the public or not depends on the different values and positions of the human society, while it's also impossible to be approved by everybody. The key is that the idea of ontology is an arbitrary intellectual judgment as a result of the choice of ideal values, while the knowledge about cosmology is also the secrets of the cosmos revealed via the cultivation of a spirit with corresponding values. Those secrets are never revealed to those who don't such ideal spirits. This article begins with discussing the definition of the problem consciousness while addressing also the contribution of contemporary Chinese philosophers of the twentieth century in terms of theories, which categorizes these philosophers into different types before verifying the theories of different schools through the various identities and positions of the creators, scholars and students of Chinese philosophy, and then distinguishing among the principles to verify the construction of theoretical frameworks along with the differences in the discussion about the principles to verify the philosophical frameworks. The subject of this article is indeed a question that has never been discussed by the methodologies of Chinese philosophy and should contribute to the expansion of this academic field.

References


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Cited by


周詠盛(2018)。論當代儒學重構之問題與方法:以牟宗三與勞思光為例〔博士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU201800222

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