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如何從平凡認知提昇到如實智慧:以阿含經典與般若經典為主要依據

How to Upgrade from Ordinary Cognition to Wisdom as It Really Is: Mainly Based on the Āgama-sūtras and Prajñāpāramitā-sūtras

Abstracts


哲學既然以愛好智慧為標榜,從事哲學工作,即應以成就智慧或體現智慧為目標。若偏離於智慧之認知,或遠低於智慧之認知,皆可概括地稱為平凡認知。因此,哲學的本務,就在於認清且脫離平凡認知,進而透過正確的認知與通達的理解,邁向智慧。阿含經典以戒定慧三增上學為修行的骨幹,而正見與智慧尤為此一骨幹的眼目之前導。般若經典則將般若波羅蜜多--究竟通達的智慧,或智慧貫徹到底--列為菩提道修行的核心骨幹與旗艦。本文以阿含經典與般若經典為主要的文獻依據,探討從平凡認知提昇到如實智慧的理路與關鍵。在論陳平凡認知與如實智慧的方方面面之後,聚焦於探討如實智慧做為解決平凡認知之弊病的對策,以及由如實智慧導向修行道路以智慧為訴求的標竿。透過本文的研究,應可對於哲學在辨別平凡認知與成就如實智慧之課題,提供具有重大意涵的啟明。

Parallel abstracts


Since philosophy is said to be the quest for wisdom, engaging in philosophical inquiry should aim at achieving or embodying wisdom. At the level of worldly conventions, a cognition either deviating from or far below wisdom can be summed up as ordinary or even mediocre cognition. Therefore, the basic task of philosophy lies in recognizing and breaking away from ordinary cognition, and then moving toward wisdom through correct cognition and thorough understanding. The Āgama-sūtras take morality, meditation, and wisdom as the backbone of practices, and the development of right view and wisdom operates as guiding eyes for Buddhist practitioners. The Prajñāpāramitā-sūtras especially list prajñāpāramitā-the wisdom of thorough penetration, or the wisdom that is carried through to the end-as the core backbone and flagship of the path to enlightenment. This article uses the Āgama-sūtras and Prajñāpāramitā-sūtras as the main literary sources to explore the rationale and key to the improvement from ordinary cognition to wisdom as it really is. The framework of the thesis, after discussing various aspects of ordinary cognition and wisdom as it really is, focuses on wisdom as a countermeasure to solve the disadvantages of ordinary cognition, and on the way in which benchmarking wisdom acts as a standard of practices for making progress on Buddhist multiple paths. Through the research and discussion in this article, it should be possible to shed some light on philosophical distinction between ordinary cognition and achieving wisdom as it really is.

References


《中阿含經》,東晉.瞿曇僧伽提婆(Gautama Saṅghadeva)譯,T. 26, vol. 1, pp.421a809a。
《雜阿含經》,劉宋.求那跋陀羅(Guṇabhadra)譯,T. 99, vol. 2, pp.1a-373b。
《增壹阿含經》,東晉.瞿曇僧伽提婆(Gautama Saṅghadeva)譯,T. 125, vol. 2, pp.549b-830b。
《大般若波羅蜜多經.第二會》,唐.玄奘譯,T. 220 (2), vol. 7, pp.1b-426a。
川崎信定,《一切智思想の研究》,東京:春秋社,1992。

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