During the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chang Chih-chung, the governor of Hunan Province, misunderstood the next target of victorious Japanese Army would be his capital Changsha when China's army retreated from Wuhan, the capital of Hupei. He made a fatal mistake to hurry to execute an unbelievable scorched earth policy, resulting in the city being almost burned down to the ground. This has become remembered as the so-called the Changsha Blaze Incident of 1938.Many people severely and strongly criticized the Nationalist Government's command for such an outrageous incident, so the Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek went to Changsha immediately, and asked to investigate into the causes of the Incident and the reasons for carrying out the decision in addition to the demand that the punishment of the culprits. The deputy chief of the Bureau Investigation Statistics (BIS) Dai Li gave an eyewitness account to the Generalissimo. He reported that the governor was the very person who executed the scorched earth policy without full considerations.The important leaders of the Changsha garrison headquarters were sentenced to death, while the governor Chang under the Generalissimo's protection was just having his official title removed. This means, the B1S was not responsible for the incident. Besides, the Nationalist Government made a correction about the scorched earth policy by limiting to destroy the military targets owing to the lesson of Changsha Blaze Incident.