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升學機會與家庭背景

Educational Opportunities and Family Background in Taiwan

Abstracts


本文探討家庭背景對個人升學機率的影響,如何隨著整體就學機會的增加而變化。首先,我們以一個簡單模型說明,當就學機會增加之後,家庭背景對個人就學機率的影響,視當時就學比例的高低而定。當就學比例偏低(夠高)時,就學機會的繼續增加會使得家庭背景的影響增強(減弱)。其次,使用1978-2001年的「人力資源調查」資料,對各個升學階段的實證結果,與模型的預期相當一致。此外,就個人就讀大學的機率而言,家庭背景的影響力增加的走勢與整體大學升學機會的增加亦步亦趨。父或母為老師的影響,1997-2001年間甚至高達11.75%,比父母親教育程度的影響都大。最後,對照考試成績與家庭背景的正向關係,現行公私立大學間學生學費負擔與政府對公私立學校補助的差異;其實是一種反向的所得重分配。

Parallel abstracts


This paper investigates how does the effect of family background on one's probability of moving upward along the educational system change as the aggregate educational opportunity increases. We use a model to illustrate that whether the increase in educational opportunity will enhance or lessen the effect of family background depends on the initial enrollment rate. When the initial enrollment rate is low, for example, the increase in the enrollment rate will make the effect of family background stronger. Empirical results from the 1978-2001 surveys are consistent with the model's predictions. The expansion of college enrollment rate increases the effect of family background on the probability of entering college. Specifically, children of teachers are more likely to get a college education by 11.75% in 1997-2001. Given that the probability of obtaining college education is positively correlated with family background, the so-called ”low tuition” policy for public college are in fact a reverse income redistribution.

References


駱明慶(2002)。誰是台大學生?----性別、省籍與城鄉差異。經濟論文叢刊。30(1),113-147。
駱明慶(2001)。教育成就的省籍與性別差異。經濟論文叢刊。29(2),117-152。
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Chang, C.H.(1992).Historical trends in the equality of educational opportunity in Taiwan.Taiwan Economic Review.20(1),23-50.
Coleman, J.S.(1988).Social capital in the creation of human capital.American Journal of Sociology.94,S95-S120.

Cited by


李欣倫(2015)。體制外教育對家庭內人力資本外溢效果的影響〔碩士論文,淡江大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6846/TKU.2015.00554
陸亭宇(2011)。台灣高等教育擴充後學生接受高等教育機會可接近性及可負擔性之研究〔碩士論文,淡江大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6846/TKU.2011.00034
林玉舫(2008)。家庭背景與教育支出:台灣的實證研究〔碩士論文,淡江大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6846/TKU.2008.00928
鄭亦涵(2013)。人力資本累積與所得分配-公私立教育之影響〔碩士論文,國立清華大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6843/NTHU.2013.00637
Chen, C. Y. (2006). Human Capital, Liquidity, Family Factors, and Self-Employment [master's thesis, National Tsing Hua University]. Airiti Library. https://doi.org/10.6843/NTHU.2006.00514

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