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社會資本及幸福感相關性之跨國與跨年齡層比較

Social Capital and Happiness: An International Comparison across Three Generation Groups

Abstracts


本研究以跨國資料探討在不同年齡層中社會資本對幸福感的影響,並使用跨層次交互作用分析影響幸福感之相關因素。本研究使用三個資料庫。樣本來自國際社會調查,包含30個國家及49,504個人樣本。本研究將樣本分為三個年齡層,年輕(20-34歲)、中年(35-64歲)和老年(65歲以上)。個人層次變項取自國際社會調查,國家層次變項取自世界銀行資料庫與全球繁榮指數。使用階層線性模型(Hierarchical Linear Modeling)分析30個國家之個人層次和國家層次變項對不同年齡層幸福感的影響。本研究結果顯示(一)30個國家中,有25個國家在三個年齡層幸福感呈現顯著差異。其中有20個國家老年人幸福感是三個年齡層中最低的。(二)透過階層線性模型,顯示老年人幸福感的差異有14%的變異受到國家因素影響,是三個年齡層中影響最大的。(三)國家層次變項中,發現社會資本對老年人幸福感有顯著正向影響。(四)對老年族群而言,居住都市化程度與社會資本之交互作用達顯著,表示社會資本愈高的國家,會弱化居住都市化對幸福感的影響力。

Parallel abstracts


Happiness of the people is an important index of social development. This study focuses on the correlation between social capital and happiness and the comparison of international data. Three data sources are used. Samples are taken from the International Social Survey (ISSP) across 30 countries, providing a total of 49,504 people who are divided into three age groups: the young (20-34 years old), the middle-aged (35-64 years old), and the elderly (over 65 years old). This study uses hierarchical linear modeling to measure the cross-level effects of happiness from different age groups (young, middle-aged, and elderly) in 30 countries. The results find (1) of the 30 countries, there is a significant difference in the happiness level of the three age groups in 25 of these countries. The score of the elderly's happiness is shown to be the lowest out of the three age groups in 20 of the countries. (2) The elderly's happiness is affected the most by country factors, about 14% in the three age groups. (3) National level factors have significant positive effects on the elderly's happiness. (4) Social capital acts as a buffer against the adverse effects of urbanization and educational degree on the mental well-being of the elderly.

References


吳淑敏(2003)。婦女幸福感之研究。教育學刊。20,119-140。
李金桂(2009)。運用社會資本自組都市更新會實施更新之研究(碩士論文)。國立政治大學地政研究所。
邱皓政、溫福星(2007)。脈絡效果的階層線性模型分析:以學校組織創新氣氛與教師創意表現為例。教育與心理研究。30(1),1-35。
莊芸鑫(2010)。社會資本與壓力、休閒參與、身心健康關係之研究—以金門縣山外社區為例(碩士論文)。國立高雄大學高階經營管理研究所。
陳榮德(2004)。組織內部社會網絡的形成與影響:社會資本觀點(博士論文)。國立中山大學人力資源管理研究所。

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