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「同歸」或「分殊」-論當今佛教對宗教異同之兩種論調及中觀學之可能觀點

Convergence or Divergence?-A study on the Two Discourses of Religious Sameness and Difference in Contemporary Buddhism and a Possible Response from the Viewpoint of Mādhyamika

Abstracts


本文以一行禪師、證嚴法師、達賴喇嘛及印順法師為例,探討當今佛教界對於宗教異同的兩種論述,一是認為所有宗教都是相同的(「同歸」),另一認為宗教互有差別而不能混為一說(「分殊」)。關於這兩種見解的差異,本文試著提出解釋,初步認為是理智和情感兩者間不同面向的強調,而各有偏重。此外,佛教中觀學以「破邪顯正」聞名,但本文指出在中觀學緣起性空、二諦圓融等義理下,亦可談宗教的融合、融通,而在空義基礎下進行宗教會通。如此,中觀式的宗教融合,或可使「不分宗教」與「宗教分殊」兩個看似對立的主張,得到另一向度的理解,而且有別於一貫道式的宗教會通,也與愛與慈悲的立場下談不分宗教有所差別,應可提供今日宗教和諧、對話者一個思索的可能。

Parallel abstracts


In this paper, I take the views of Ven. Thich Nhat Hanh, Dharma Master Cheng Yen, the 14th Dalai Lama and Ven. Yin Shun as a basis to explore the two discourses of religious sameness and difference often discussed in contemporary Buddhist circles. While the prior holds that all religions are essentially the same, the latter maintains that there are distinct differences amongst various religions. I put forward the possibility that these two contradictory viewpoints might stem from a difference in emphasis on intellect on the one hand, and sentiment on the other. Furthermore, although the Mādhyamika school is well-known for its 'refutation of misconstruction to reveal right understanding'; based on the theories of dependent arising, emptiness, and the coherence between the conventional truth and ultimate truth, there is nonetheless scope within the Mādhyamika philosophy to reasonably promote the fusion and harmony of religions. For those who pursue religious harmony and dialogue, this type of fusion and harmonization of religious views offers a fresh dimension to the seemingly opposite standpoints of the sameness or difference of religions. It must be noted however, this view differs from the positions of 'I-Kuan Tao' and other outlooks which focus on the role of love and compassion to dissolve the religious difference.

References


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