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Effect of fruit bagging and mulching on control of mango fruit anthracnose disease

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在台南玉井數處中度發生炭疽病(Colletotrichum spp.引起)之愛文果園中,進行數項套袋與地面覆蓋方法對檬果果實炭疽病防治效果之試驗。果園管理按一般農民常用之方法行之,果實於生理落果期停止後立即施藥套袋,至成熟度8-9分熟時採果,果實經益收生長素3000倍稀釋液處理,等果皮轉色後,調査罹病果實率。使用防治方法中,以(1)早期套袋之防治效果最好,在採果後第12天時之發病率,幼果期即予以套袋之處理爲0-5%;生理落果時套袋者27%:落果停止時套袋者42%;採果前兩星期套袋者68%;無套袋者(全期施藥)72%。不同套袋材質不影響防治效果,但影響果實成熟日期、糖度與果皮顏色。早期套白色紙袋,可提高糖度,促進果實提早成熟5-7天,並防止果實日燒 (2)在一管理良好果園中,地面覆蓋黑色不織布之處理在採果後第9天之發病率平均爲6%,無覆蓋區爲30%。在一試驗園中,開花期不施藥,著果後立即套袋,每個果實在採收後第9天仍有11-27個炭疽病病斑。因此,現今田間病菌密度仍高時,上述非農藥防治方法雖能有效降低果實罹病率,且比農藥防治效果更佳,但由於花期無法套袋,故尚不能完全取代農藥防治,但可降低農藥使用次數達十次以上。此外,套袋與地面覆蓋對果實貯藏期病害蒂腐病(Botryodiplodia theobromae引起)亦有防治效益,但不若對炭疽病之防治效益顯著。

Parallel abstracts

To test the effect of two measures including bagging and mulching on control of "Irwin mango fruit anthracnose, several experiments were conducted in the mango orchards at Yujing Tainan. During blossom period and fruit enlargement stage mango trees were sprayed with pesticides every 7-10 days. At the bagging day or one day before bagging, mango fruits were sprayed with pesticides and then enveloped. After bagging, trees were no longer sprayed or only sprayed 1-2 times of insecticides until harvest. Fruits reaching 80-90% maturity were harvested and treated with Ethephon (3,000X). The disease spots developed on fruits at the 9th and 12th day after treatment were recorded. The results showed as follows (1). Fruit in the earlier stage was found to be the most effective means or control of mango anthracnose disease. Disease incidence of fruits with anthracnose spots at the 12th day after ripening was 0-5% for the treatment fruit-bagging from fruit set period, and 27% and 42% for treatments fruit-bagging from physiological fruit drop period and from the end of fruit drop period, respectively. Disease incidence for the treatment fruit-bagging 2 weeks before harvest was 68% Whereas control, in which fruits were not bagged but sprayed with fungicides during whole fruit growing stage, was 72%. Different bagging materials or bagging paper treated with various oils did not affect the disease control results effectively, but affected the maturation, color, and brix of mango fruit. Quality of mango fruit bagged with white paper bags at the earlier stage was much better than those in any other treatment. Fruits enveloped in white bags matured 5-7 days earlier, were with higher sugar contents and without sun-burn paper injury. (2). The measure of rhizosphere soil surface mulched with spun-bonded polyester was effective in control of anthracnose, too. The disease incidence at the 9th day after fruit ripening was 6% for mulching treatment whereas 30% for controls. Although fruit-bagging was the best means of control of anthracnose so far, without fungicide controls during blossom period, 11-27 spots were still appeared on ripen mango even if fruits were bagged immediately after setting. Therefore, control of mango postharvest diseases with fungicides could be substituted partly by non-chemical methods. However, means "fruit-bagging in earlier stage" plus soil surface mulching" could decrease more than 10 applications of fungicide sprays in the mango fields each year. Additionally, these two measures mentioned above were also effective in control of mango fruit stem end rot disease, but their control effects were not as significant as in control of anthracnose.

Parallel keywords

Mango anthracnose non-chemical control bagging mulching

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