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Development of the School Health Education Program from the perspective of Comprehensive School Health Model: an example at a Higher Secondary School of Karachi, Pakistan

從綜合性學校衛生計畫看學校健康教育的發展:以巴基斯坦卡拉奇一所高中為例

Abstracts


Objectives: To assess need for school health program, common health issues, knowledge and attitude towards health, perceived needs of students, teachers and parents. Thereafter apply Comprehensive School Health Model in a higher secondary school of Karachi; and gather outcome of the program through anecdotal evidences from stakeholders. Methods: Baseline assessment was conducted through focus group discussions and individual views from through interactive activities from 250 students; focus group discussions with 35 teachers and administered questionnaires to 16 parents. We thematically analyzed the data. Based on the thematic analysis, assigned school health nurse developed and implemented health education curriculum. We gathered anecdotal evidence from stakeholders to gauge success of the program. Results: The responses of students were more inclined towards physical aspects of health, and those of parents on issues related to mental and social development. Teachers emphasized broad and important aspects of counseling on psychosocial problems of students. After implementation of the curriculum, there were developments like establishment of a cafeteria committee to ensure healthy food availability and extended counseling facilities to help students cope with daily life stressors. Conclusions: The program was successful in terms of executing health promoting initiatives for school children. The framework can act as a reference for other schools in developing countries that share similar needs and want to administer and direct the concept of school health promotion for their students.

Parallel abstracts


目標:透過將綜合性學校衛生計畫應用在巴基斯坦卡拉奇的一所高中,藉以評估學校健康教育計劃的需求、常見的健康議題、對健康的知識和態度,以及學生、教師與家長的自覺需求。方法:採焦點團體法與250位學生、35位教師進行訪談,以及對16名家長進行問卷調查,將收集到的資料進行主題分析,並依據主題,由一位學校保健室的護理人員制定並實施健康教育課程。結果:學生們傾向於注重身體健康,而父母則傾向於心理和社會發展的相關層面,教師則強調輔導學生的社會心理問題。在課程實施後,帶來一些新的影響,例如:食堂委員會的成立以確保供應健康的食物,以及增設輔導設施,協助學生應付日常生活壓力。結論:此計畫在執行學生健康促進方面來說是成功的,且此架構可作為發展中國家其他有相似需求,並希冀經營和指導學生有關學校健康促進之概念的參考。

References


WHO. Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. Geneva: WHO, 1986.
National Association of School Nurses. Position statement: caseload assignments. Available at: http://www.nasn.org/Default.aspx?tabid_209. Accessed April 16, 2007.
Ministry of Finance, Government of Pakistan. Pakistan economic survey (2008-09), Available at: http://www.finance.gov.pk/survey_0809.html. Accessed April 16, 2007.
Allensworth, DD,Kolbe, LJ(1987).The comprehensive school health program: exploring an expanded concept.J Sch Health.57,409-12.
Becker, GS(1995).Human Capital and Poverty Alleviation.Washington, DC:World Bank.

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