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明太祖的治理思想三論-以《大明太祖高皇帝御注道德真經》為核心

Three Theses on the Ruling Philosophy of Ming Tai Tzu-Principally on the Analysis of "Commentary of Dao Der Zhen Jing"

Abstracts


《老子》一書,不僅是道家重要的經典,同時也是研究中國哲學或是中國政治思想重要的文本之一。歷來,有許多的注本傳世,其中,「御注」提供了我們觀察帝王統治思維的視點與文本基礎。不同時期的帝王對《老子》的不同態度,充分折射出了帝王文化與《老子》的複雜關係。明太祖,作為明代的開國者,並且是統治基調的定調者,他的政治作為高度影響了明代政治活動的走向。他的政治著作中可以找到反映政治作為的思想元素,特別是他親注的《道德經》,從中體現出他對於儒釋道三教的基本看法,也呈現出政治與宗教的充分對話,是研究明初政治的重要文本。本文以《大明太祖高皇帝御注道德真經》為核心,從「道與理、氣、欲」、「天命國家與君臣關係」與「刑政與無為」三個面向,討論太祖的政治思想。認為太祖關於御注的書寫,就權力的常規化運作與政治文化的趨於收歛而言,是一部很重要的宣示作品。同時,也反映出宋明政治社會的同一化營造趨於成熟。

Keywords

老子御注 常與變 天命

Parallel abstracts


This article deals with the internal context of Ming Tai Tzu's political philosophy, principally based on the analysis of the book Commentary of Dao Der Zhen Jing written by Ming Tai Tzu (明太祖, the founder of Ming Dynasty). There are three parts in this article. The discussion of Dao or permanence reveals the first part and the relationship among Dao (the great origin), Li (the great rule) and Qi (the vital energy) will be also discussed. The second part unfolds the discussions in two dimensions the legitimacy of the Mandate State, and the interaction of the monarch and the bureaucracy (or the gentry). The last part focuses on the ruling skills and the ideal of non-action that offers a kind of platform where tri-religions may occur to dialogue. Ming Tai Tzu had shown the methodology (or kind of Aesthetics) of governance in many writings, especially in Commentary of Dao Der Zhen Jing. The purpose in the commentary is to deliver the legitimacy of state building by initiating or re-shaping a metaphysical system that not only monitors the statecraft but also embraces or orders the world. And through the activity of making commentary of the Daoist texts, Ming Tai Tzu discussed the dialectical relationship between "classics" (經) and "changes" (變). He emphasized that changes can be normal and have the legitimacy just under the qualification by following the great rule (Dao, Li, or permanence). There won't be any variations that should alter the ultimate. And this is valid not only in the sphere of daily living, but also in the sphere of governing. The basic understandings of body politics that come from ancient philosophers are also exemplified in Ming Tai Tzu's ruling philosophy. And through this "scriptures postil the commentators" tradition, Ming Tai Tzu revealed his political ideas, strengthened his influence and shared or even dominated the power of discourse.

References


王汎森(2013)。權力的毛細管作用:清代的思想、學術與心態。臺北:聯經。
王明(1984)。道家和道教思想研究。北京:中國社會科學。
田浩(2008)。朱熹的思維世界。臺北:允晨。
成中英(2005)。合外內之道―儒家哲學論。新北:康德。
朱元璋(1991)。明太祖集。合肥:黃山書社。

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