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菁英輪廓與黨國體制的存續:中共與國民黨的比較

Elite Configuration and the Survival of Party-State Systems: A Comparison for the CCP and the KMT

Abstracts


本文以「菁英型態」為研究焦點,比較改革開放時期中共與戒嚴至解嚴後國民黨的持續與演變,以探索黨國體制如何維持存續。透過量化趨勢分析與比較歷史分析,本文發現改革開放時期中共菁英輪廓出現一致性弱化與增強的轉折過程,迄今仍呈現「意識型態型菁英」;戒嚴至解嚴後國民黨菁英則出現廣泛分殊化與弱一致性趨勢,朝向「碎裂型菁英」演變。兩黨菁英輪廓的演變為黨國體制的續存帶來重要影響,特別是提供黨內出現分裂的基礎。透過兩相反案例的參照,本文主張如何避免走向「碎裂型菁英」應是中共未來維繫存續的關鍵課題。

Parallel abstracts


This paper focuses on the related patterns of national elite conditions of the CCP during the reform era and the KMT in the martial law period, so as to explore how party-state systems can maintain their ruling status. Drawn from the trend analysis and the historical analysis, this paper finds that, for the CCP, there was a transitional process in which the elite unity became weakened and then strengthened again. And nowadays the elite configuration remains ideocratic, composed of the narrow differentiation and the strong unity. By contrast, the elite configuration in the KMT substantially changed from ideocratic to fragmented during the martial law period, including toward wider differentiation and weak unity. The evolution of elite condition is important for determining the survival of a party-state system, especially provide a basis for the emergence of intra-party conflicts. By comparing the two different cases, this paper suggests that how to avoid the elite condition toward fragmented is crucial for the CCP's political survival in the future.

Parallel keywords

party-state system elite configuration regime change CCP KMT

References


〈蔣廷黻在聯大演說全文〉, 《中央日報》,1958/10/2:2版
中共中央組織部、中共中央黨史研究室(2004)。中國共產黨歷屆中央委員大辭典(1921-2003)。北京:中共黨史出版社。
中共中央組織部、中共中央黨史研究室、中央檔案館(2000)。中國共產黨組織史資料(1921-1997)。北京:中共黨史出版社。

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