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國內維權,國際賦權,與跨國倡權:基督新教的跨國倡議運動與兩岸三地的宗教人權

Making Transnational Empowerment Possible: Protestant Human Rights Movements in Hong Kong, China, and Taiwan

Abstracts


賦權(empowerment)是討論社會運動與人權提升議題上的熱門觀念,但現在以西方的語彙與非政府組織為主導的模式,在許多後殖民國家面臨重大的挑戰,尤其無法回答如何面對在市民社會不成熟、社會組織被國家控制與限制、國際參與合作被禁止的不利情勢下賦權的問題。基督新教在兩岸三地展現爭取宗教人權的案例幫助回答了這個問題,展現了一個與西方傳統途徑相當不同的模式。兩岸三地的實踐本質上己形成一個跨境的、爭取宗教人權提升的共同體,只是在實際做為上,行動者傾向在高舉普世價值與利用跨國網絡做為武器的同時,技巧性地選擇國內維權的詞彙、隱藏與境外連結的管道以避免坐實民族主義者批判的罪名,以此迴避傳統模式中常見「被外國人賦權」這樣的缺陷。宗教自由本是從西方基督教歷史中發展出來的概念,有關宗教人權的提升長期以來更為西方國家中的人權團體所主導,兩岸三地基督新教的倡權運動顯現一種對傳統宗教自由的觀念的挑戰,回應與修正以西方社會為主體的策略,這些發展曾在臺灣的民主化過程中展現效果,對香港與大陸公民社會的未來也可能有所影響,值得所有關心兩岸三地民主與自由發展的人對此更加注意。

Parallel abstracts


Considering recent social movements and public protests worldwide, "Empowerment" has become one of most controversial issues. International empowerment often involves human rights discourse and NGOs from the West, which are not popular in many post-colonial societies. The empowerment approach has been proven useful in the past but faces great difficulties in those countries because it fails to provide solutions in such societies where NGOs are often co-opted and international engagement is under scrutiny of the powerful states. Protestant activism in Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Mainland China demonstrates a possible solution to this problem. In fact, these activists and religious organizations develop their transnational networks of activism and embraces universal principles of human rights, while in public they choose to use the discourse of civil rights and conceal their outside engagement in order to avoid the common "empowered by the West" criticism from nationalists and the states. Even if religious freedom is an imported concept derived from a Christian culture, cultivated in Western history, and promoted by the Western NGOs, these Protestant activisms across three places, from various social movements participated by Presbyterian Church in Taiwan, Christian student/scholars in Hong Kong, to House Church in China, show their ingenuity of localizing this empowerment enterprise and take initiative to overcome great difficulties. Protestant Christians in Taiwan have won their freedom and help to democratize the nation; will similar pattern happens in Hong Kong and China? The future of Protestant activism deserves more academic and policy attention.

References


〈教會與人權組織對被拘留的世貿示威者表達關心〉,2005,天亞社中文網:http://china.ucanews.com/2005/12/23/HK9407/。2015/5/25
〈關於我國社會主義時期宗教問題的基本觀點和基本政策〉,1982,中國民族宗教網:http://www.mzb.com.cn/html/folder/290171.htm。2014/12/24
Amnesty International國際特赦組織香港分會網站:https://www.amnesty.org.hk/web/index.php/about-2/orgnaisation_structure/。 2014/11/25
王韻(2015)。宗教市場的國際與國內因素:從兩岸政教關係研究探討一個宗教市場論的新研究架構。中國大陸研究。58(1),65-102。
余杰(2013)。四川地震與零八憲章中的中國基督徒。新使者。135,16-20。

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