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遷移與居住地點的性別選擇性

Gender Selection in Destination Choices of Labor Migration

Abstracts


本文期望了解遷移與居住地點的性別選擇性,以釐清女性的偏好與考量,以及在女性經濟機會逐年增加與兩性平權意識逐漸提升的情況下,此類性別選擇性的變遷。同時,也想了解已婚女性的決策,是否會受限於性別角色信念,而與未婚女性不同。本文採用1992年與2007年「國內遷徙調查」的原始資料,經由條件羅吉特模式的估計結果發現,遷移與居住地點的決策,確實存在性別選擇現象:在1992年時,台灣女性為了抗衡勞力市場上可能存在的性別歧視,比男性更為積極的遷移到薪資較高、居住成本較低,甚或升職機會較大的地區。到了2007年,由於台灣女性無論在教育程度、勞動參與率,以及社會與政治參與程度,均已逐年提升,此時,兩性對於地區屬性差異的反應,並無顯著的差異。至於性別角色信念對於已婚女性的限制,實證結果顯示,台灣女性似乎沒有因為婚姻而受到更大的束縛。

Parallel abstracts


Internal migration has long been recognized as an effective means of advancing individual and household income and socioeconomic status. This study explores the gender selection in destination choices of labor migration in Taiwan and clarifies the structural changes in such gender selection owing to the increase in job opportunities and greater public participation of women over the past several years. Moreover, the study attempts to probe into the destination choices of married women in view of gender role beliefs. By comparing Taiwan's domestic migration survey data for 1992 with those for 2007, the results of the conditional logit models reveal that females tended to be more favorable to regions with high wages, low living costs, and more high-ranking jobs than males in 1992. This finding may suggest that migration can be used as a compensation mechanism for gender bias in the labor market. Such gender selection is, however, not found in the 2007 data due to the increasing economic opportunities for women at present. In addition, marriage does not seem to affect women's decisions since the propensity to move is just the same for single or married women.

References


行政院主計處 2010 《2010年性別圖像》。Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan2010 Images of Women in Taiwan, 2010.
林向愷(2008)。全球化與台灣面臨的經濟問題。新世紀智庫論壇。44,23-30。
林季平(1999)。台灣年輕勞動力回流及連續流動─1990年戶口及住宅普查資料實證分析。主計月報。87(6),67-79。
林季平(2005)。台灣的人口遷徙及勞工流動問題回顧:1980-2000。台灣社會學刊。34,147-209。
林季平、廖高禮(2011)。台灣失業勞工的遷徙與再就業:初級、回流及連續遷徙分析。人口學刊。42,1-41。

Cited by


翁貴貞(2014)。台灣跨縣市人口遷徙之研究-與五都升格和財政結構之關係〔碩士論文,國立清華大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6843/NTHU.2014.00462
黃顯達(2015)。地區就業機會差異對於老人居住安排的影響〔碩士論文,長榮大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6833/CJCU.2015.00165

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