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金剛乘佛教的救度方法

The Way of Salvation of Vajrayāna Buddhism

Abstracts


印度的後期密教,今日仍然盛行於喜馬拉雅山脈的西藏文化圈內,一般稱之為金剛乘佛教。金剛乘佛教的教義極為困難,尤其是它基於「直接的經驗」和「即身成佛」,而且不重視教義上的思辨。後者借用不同的大乘學派(中觀或是唯識)以架構理論;金剛乘上師則由此提出前提,且據此建立心理學上的微妙儀式,及其瑜伽實踐。本文分成六個部分,第壹節為前言,敘述金剛乘佛教的位置。第貳節講述印度佛教的三大主軸──業、輪迴、涅槃。第參節是關於構成人格的五蘊,及其對應的曼荼羅。第肆節舉出兩個成就法。第伍節為金剛乘佛教尊格的象徵表現。第陸節為結論,指出金剛乘佛教為全人類的文化遺產。

Keywords

輪迴 涅槃 五蘊 成就法 尊格

Parallel abstracts


The Latter Esoterism of Indian Buddhism still prevails in Tibet and the Himalayan kingdoms today. The term "Vajrayāna Buddhism" is used to refer to developments that took place in Tibet and survived in the Tibetan Buddhist cultural sphere. Vajrayāna dogmatics are extremely difficult because they are based, above all, on direct experiences and immediate realizations, and do not put emphasis on doctrinal speculations. The latter are borrowed from the various Mahāyāna schools, either Mādhyamika, or Yogācāra; they represent the premises from which the Vajrayāna masters started and upon which they built the psychological subtleties of their liturgies and of their yoga practices. The paper is divided into six parts. The first part is preface; it delineates the situation of Vajrayāna Buddhism, concerning some problems, in the whole Indian Buddhism. Secondly, the three main axes-karma, saṃsāra and nirvāṇa-should be explained. The third part is about our personality, an aggregate of five constituents (five skandhas), corresponding to its Maṇḍala. In the fourth part, two sādhanas are illustrated (sādhana: means of propitiating them and obtaining their beatific vision or their help. In this paper, it means ways or methods of visualizing a deity). The fifth part examines the symbols the deity presents. Finally, in the sixth part, it is concluded that Vajrayāna Buddhism is the world's culture heritage.

Parallel keywords

karma samsara nirvana five-skandhas sadhana deity

References


許明銀(2014)。密教─最後的佛教。輔仁宗教研究。28
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(1983)。大正藏。台北:新文豐出版公司。
(1983)。大正藏。台北:新文豐出版公司。

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