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The Royal Ceremonials to Protect the Country from Calamities and to Induce Prosperity and Society of Taiwan after the War (1949-1987)


本文旨在探討臺灣在戰後至戒嚴時期佛教界所舉行「仁王護國法會」的意義。 從中國歷史上來看,「仁王護國法會」的舉辦完全是依據《仁王護國般若波羅蜜多經》的內容來進行,希望能達到經上所記載護國、佑民的效果。1949 年之後國府遷臺至解嚴前,臺灣佛教界為因應臺灣身處風雨飄搖的處境,仁王護國法會又以「鞏固領導中心」、「國運昌隆」為思考模式,圖以處理臺灣國際地位不利的變局。隨著經濟的起飛,法會祈求「國運昌隆」的訴求並沒有減少,但是因經濟繁榮所帶來的社會風氣改變,仁王法會也適時加入「淨化人心」等訴求,強烈的反應了時代的性格。90 年代之後,仁王法會成為佛教界的例行公事,過去強烈的政治性格隨之淡化不少,「風調雨順」、「國泰民安」變成常見的主張。同樣一部《仁王護國般若波羅蜜多經》隨著時局的推演,展現出不同的風貌,也可看出佛教適應社會與眾生而產生的文化樣貌。

Parallel abstracts

This paper aims to explore the significance of the Royal Ceremonials to Protect the Country from Calamities and to Induce Prosperity (RCPCCIP) which frequently take place on this island. From the history of China, we have found that the RCPCCIP is held on the basis of the Sutra of the Benevolent King, according to which if a ruler is benevolent, then the country will be prosperous. After 1949 and before 1987, Taiwan was working hard to recover her strength, and accordingly the ceremonials often aimed to stabilize the ruling party and to pray for national prosperity. As the economy of the nation began to rise, the ceremonials did not cease to pray for national prosperity. However, as the society was facing new problems caused by economic developments, the ceremonials began to ask for the purification of the mind. After the 1990s, the RCPCCIP became a routine, mainly praying for ”nice winds and moderate rain” or ”national prosperity and civil safety.” It is obvious that the same sutra can be used for different purposes according needs of the time and place.