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成為老年父母的照顧者:成年子女的孝道信念、代間多重時空框架經驗整合能力及代間照顧者角色認同

Being a Caregiver for Aging Parents: Adult Children's Filial Belief, Capacity of Integrating Intergenerational Cross-time-and-space Experience, and Their Role Identification of Caregiver

Abstracts


本文探討華人重視的孝道信念是否能透過代間多重時空框架經驗整合(簡稱多框架整合)能力作用,進而提升成年子女對代間照顧者角色產生認同的中介運作歷程,並援引孝道雙元模型,檢證相互性與權威性兩面向孝道不同的影響機制。研究邀請年滿35歲且其父親或母親至少一人健在的成年人填寫調查問卷,分別蒐集到488筆父親版與518筆母親版有效問卷資料。結果顯示:相互性孝道對代間照顧者角色認同的正向效果,不論互動對象是父親或母親,都達顯著水準;但是權威性孝道的效果僅在對象為父親時達顯著水準;而且不論是對父親或母親對象,相互性孝道的效果都較權威性孝道更具優勢性。代間多框架整合能力對代間照顧者角色認同的影響,在父親與母親對象上都具正向顯著效果。相互性孝道可透過多框架整合能力,進而強化成年子女對代間照顧者角色認同的中介歷程,而且在互動對象為父親及母親時皆達顯著;至於權威性孝道透過多框架整合能力影響代間照顧者角色認同的中介歷程,僅在父親對象時達顯著水準。整體而言,孝道信念在華人社會具有鞏固家庭發揮照顧與支持高齡父母的功能,且相互性與權威性孝道對代間照顧關係具有不同的影響效果。本文發現可供實務工作者參考,理解孝道信念如何促進華人子女認同其代間照顧者角色的歷程。

Parallel abstracts


Intergenerational relationships play a central role in shaping elderly well-being, especially for Chinese family, in which filial piety is a primary virtue to urge adult children to fulfill their role obligation as a caregiver of their aging parents. This study adopts the dual filial piety model and investigates the different impacts of reciprocal and authoritarian filial piety on adult children's role identification of intergenerational caregiver (RIIC). It is assumed that reciprocal filial piety (RFP) has a more positive influence than authoritarian filial piety (AFP) because the former originates from authentic emotional bonding and facilitates stronger motivation to care about their parents, while the latter is affected by the internalization of Chinese social norms that emphasize children's obedience and submission to their parents. This study further examines the possible mediator, namely Integrating Cross-time-and-space Experience (ICTSE), of the abovementioned relationship between filial piety and RIIC. ICTSE represents a capacity of perspective taking and open thinking which make adult children be able to better review, integrate, and refine their early parent-children interactive experiences by multiple frames about different situations and different roles' perspectives. ICTSE facilitates adult children's self-acceptance in their intergenerational relationships, including their role reversal and identification as a caregiver. This study recruited 724 participants who were above 35 years old. These participants completed the father or/and mother version questionnaire if their father or/and mother was alive and above 60 years old. A total of 488 data were valid for investigating the relationship with father (324 of them were from female participants; average age: 43.03 years old, SD = 6.48 years; average age of their father: 73.15 years old, SD = 8.36 years). In addition, a total of 518 data were valid for investigating the relationship with mother (332 of them were from female participants; average age: 45.76 years old, SD = 7.95 years; average age of their father: 72.25 years old, SD = 8.99 years). This study used structure equation modeling to analyze two hypothetical models. The first model investigated the effect of RFP and AFP on RIIC and showed acceptable model fit for both father- and mother-child relationships. The positive effect of RFP was significant on RIIC for both father-child and mother-child dyads, while that of AFP was significant for only father-child dyad. It also indicated the effect of RFP was more superior to that of AFP for both father and mother targets. The second model further tested the mediating effect of ICSTE and also found acceptable model fit for both father-child and mother-child dyads. The positive effect of RFP was significant on ICSTE for both father-child and mother-child dyads, while that of AFP was significant for only father-child dyad. The effect of RFP was more superior to AFP for both father-child and mother-child dyads. ICTSE had a positively significant effect on RIIC for both father-child and mother-child dyads. The mediating effect of ICTSE in the path from RFP to RIIC was significant for both father-child and mother-child dyads, whereas that in the path from AFP to RIIC was significant for only father-child dyad. This study highlights that filial piety in Chinese society could promote family to bring its functions of supporting and caring for aging parents into fully play. The findings might be important in providing professional consultants and family life educators a better understanding of how filial belief urges Chinese adult to identify their role of intergenerational caregiver and care about their elderly parents' well-being more sincerely.

References


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