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失業、非典型就業的人口組成與工資率分析

A Study on the Demographic Composition and Wage Structure of Unemployment and Atypical Employment

Abstracts


本文採用2008年5月行政院主計處「人力資源調查」暨附帶之「人力運用調查」的個體資料,並以「兩階段估計法」估計臺灣勞工的就業機率(失業機率)與工資率,以及就業者從事典型與非典型工作的機率與工資率。研究結果顯示:(1)人力資本投資、工作身份、曾否退休、性別、婚姻狀態,以及主要工作場所從事行業等影響勞動供需的因素,不但是決定工資率的重要變數,同時也是決定個別勞工就業與失業的機率、以及其從事典型或非典型工作之機率的重要變數。(2)雖然無失業者工資的觀察值以估計其工資式,但本文試圖根據兩階段估計模型設算其「條件工資率」;設算結果顯示,全體失業者的平均潛在工資率至多只有就業者的12%。(3)非典型工作者的工資率並不一定比全職者來的差,但因其工時相對較少,才造成其薪資總所得遠不及於典型就業者;因此,這種因工時不足的低度就業問題,乃成爲有關非典型就業的一項重要課題。

Parallel abstracts


Using the data from Taiwan's 2008 manpower utilization survey, we explore the demographic composition and wage structure of unemployment and atypical employment. The results fromHeckman's two-step estimation approach can be summarized as follows: (1) A series of demographic characteristics, such as human capital, class of worker, retirement status, sex, marital status, and industry are not only an important component of the wage rate, but also an important element in affecting the probabilities of unemployment among labor force participants as well as atypical employment among the employed. (2) Imputing the wages of the unemployed based on the two-stage estimation model shows that the conditional wages that the unemployed are expected to receive are substantially lower than those that the employees could earn. (3) Since the wage rates of atypical workers generally are not lower than those of typical workers, the reason that the total earnings of atypical workers are lower than those of typical workers can be attributed to the concealed fact that the working hours of atypicalworkers are less than those of typicalworkers, thereby indicating that there is a significant portion of atypical workers are underemployed.

References


江豐富(2006)。外勞引進對本國勞工失業、職業選擇及薪資之影響。臺灣經濟預測與政策。37(1),69-111。
江豐富(2008)。從勞動所得估計臺灣的人力資本生產與投資。臺灣經濟預測與政策。38(2),111-140。
江豐富()。
江豐富、董安琪、劉克智(2003)。臺灣失業率上升因素之探討 — 從人口組別和地區勞動市場剖析。臺灣經濟論衡。1(8),15-72。
江豐富、劉克智(2005)。臺灣縣市失業率的長期追蹤研究 — 1987-2001。人口學刊。31,1-40。

Cited by


林文興(2017)。臺灣非典型受僱者薪資差異與就業動向之探討〔碩士論文,淡江大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6846/TKU.2017.00862
蕭妙萍(2011)。探討典型與非典型工作者之薪資差異〔碩士論文,國立清華大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6843/NTHU.2011.00476
鄭秀娟(2014)。從交易成本理論觀點探討中央行政機關僱用派遣勞工制度〔碩士論文,國立交通大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6842/NCTU.2014.00018
姚奮志(2019)。中高齡非典型工作者生命歷程分析社會發展研究學刊(24),1-44。https://doi.org/10.6687/JSDS.201909_(24).0001
黃宇弘(2017)。當代臺灣的低度就業與勞動風險:探討雇用關係的差異及影響〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU201702412

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