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「人間佛教禪法」之實踐—以「結期精進禪觀」教學為例

The Practice of Meditation in Humanism-Oriented Buddhism- Using the Instruction in "the Samatha & Vipassana Meditation Retreat for Intensive Training" as an Example

Abstracts


本文在「人間佛教」思想的基礎上,闡述禪觀修持的理論依據與修行內容。菩薩行者同樣重視透過禪修,來增進心念的平穩與清淨,並以此增強利生的堪能性。作為大乘修持法要的「人間佛教禪法」,在技巧上兼容聲聞禪法之重要內容,並揉和大乘經中的禪觀要領。有關禪修的方式,可分為「結期精進」與「日常禪觀」,在不同的修學階段,因應自利或利他的不同情況,二種功課或可偏重,但是長期而言,兩者實不宜偏廢。本文以「結期精進」的教學內容為主,對於禪觀所緣的抉擇,依「五門禪」分析佛陀教法的「普遍性」特質,教授三項修行技巧,其中兩項為「安般念」與「(四)界分別念」,這是《阿含經》中佛陀的兩大禪觀教學法,也是聲聞佛教主要的修持技巧。至於作為大乘法門的「人間佛教禪法」,以護生、利他為立義之大本。因此,除了上兩項禪觀內容之外,更教授以慈無量心為主的「四無量心」,並勸勉學人發菩提心,行菩薩道。大乘行人即使「結期精進」,最終仍指向利益眾生的實際行動,因此,菩薩行者,必須以禪觀所培養出來的堪能性與空性慧,將慈愍眾生之心,付諸實踐。這樣,以自我為中心的愛、見、慢、無明,自能逐漸稀薄,無私而慈悲普覆的心行,將能擴展至無量無邊。

Parallel abstracts


The purpose of this article is to expound the rationale and contents of practicing meditation in accord with the idea of Humanism-oriented Buddhism. Moreover, the instruction in ”the Samatha (concentration) and Vipassana (insight) meditation retreat for intensive training” is used as an example to illustrate some related issues given below.Practicing meditation can purify the mind of emotional turbulence and foster deep calm, eventually leading to the experience of samadhi. Then, with the abiding mind, we can produce the ability both to undertake and to accomplish what needs to be done. Therefore, in order to develop one's capabilities to help others, those who practice the Bodhisattva deeds also value mediation highly and view it as one of the foundational practices of Buddhism.As the essential aspect of practicing the Buddha Dharma in Mahayana tradition (the Dharma of the Great Vehicle), the meditation methods of Humanism-oriented Buddhism are not only compatible with those of Hinayana teachings (the Sravaka Vehicle) in terms of basic skills, but also blend well with the fundamental principles of the Buddhist meditative path stated in the Mahayana Sutra.With respect to the style of practicing meditation, it can be classified into two types: one is ”the meditation retreat for intensive training”, and the other is ”meditation practice in ordinary life”. The former is for the benefit of oneself, whereas the latter is for the benefit of others. Practitioners can choose either of them according to one's needs in different learning stages. However, one should not merely emphasize on one type at the cost of the other. Instead, both types should work together in the long run.This article narrows the focus to the instruction in ”the meditation retreat for intensive training”, especially the seven-day Samatha and Vipassana meditation retreat. Moreover, serving as the rationale for choosing meditation objects, the universality of the Buddha's teaching is analyzed based on the Five Methods for stilling the Mind-one of the most classic formulations of the meditative path in Buddhism. Among these five methods, three of them are taught in this intensive meditation course, namely, anapana-smrti (meditation on the breath), dhatu-prabheda-smtri (meditation on the four elements) and maitri-smrti (meditation on the loving-kindness). Anapana-smrti and dhatu-prabheda-smtri are two primary techniques for developing samadhi and wisdom in Buddhism explained in Agama Sutra, and the major methods of practice in Sravaka tradition as well. As the way of practicing the Mahayana Dharma, the practice of meditation in Humanism-oriented Buddhism is defined by two key attributes: (1) protecting sentient beings with mindfulness; (2) being beneficial to others. Because of this, maitri-smrti─one of the four boundless mentalities (S.apramana-citta)─is also taught during retreat period. Moreover, the practitioners are encouraged to resolve to attain the bodhi mind and to practice the Bodhisattva deeds.Although the Mahayana practitioners may go into meditation retreats of various durations for intensive training, they still consider serving sentient beings as their ultimate end. Thus, relying on the abiding mind and the insight of emptiness acquired by diligent practice in meditation work, the Bodhisattva way disciples must show mercy to those in distress and take action to relieve their sufferings. In so doing, the four afflictions, namely, self-centered views, self-love, ignorance, and arrogance of the self, will naturally and steadily wane. As a result, having been hooked by nothing, the minds and deeds with compassion and selflessness can easily be made to expand infinitely.

References


劉宋‧求那跋陀羅譯:《雜阿含經》【大正藏】‧第二冊。
東晉罽賓三藏瞿曇僧伽提婆譯:《中阿含經》,【大正藏】‧第一冊。
東晉‧瞿曇僧伽提婆譯:《增一雜阿含經》,【大正藏】第二冊。
塞建陀羅阿羅漢造,玄奘譯:《入阿毘達磨論》,【大正藏】第二十八冊
彌勒菩薩說,唐.玄奘譯:《瑜伽師地論》,【大正藏】第三十冊

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