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儒佛交涉的現代展開與人間佛教思潮─以太虛大師對現代新儒家的回應為中心

The Modern Development of the Interaction between Confucianism and Buddhism and the Ideological Trend of Human Realm Buddhism-Focusing on the Venerable Tashi's Response to the Modern Confucianism

Abstracts


人間佛教作為20世紀中國文化的一種思潮現象,與新儒家思潮之間的思想淵源,乃是一個值得關注的課題。20世紀初儒佛關係的展開形態,除佛教契機弘化的調適轉型之外,還與儒家思想闡釋的「現代性」之間存在著密切的思想史關聯。馬一浮(1883-1967)、熊十力(1885-1968)、梁漱溟(1893-1988)等人在20世紀上半葉對佛法的不同取向,都使正處於轉型中的佛僧作出相應回應,並從中表現出有別於傳統儒家「學佛以知儒」與「學儒以知佛」的思想形態,客觀上刺激了佛教弘化從傳統「山林佛教」到人間佛教的轉向,使之更致力於制度層面與日常生活層面的落實。至於人間佛教思潮對現代新儒家們的思想影響,則體現為把「宗教性」全權納歸於佛教。而人間佛教思潮巨擘太虛法師對此所作的具體回應, 則更值得進一步的檢討。本文即以太虛人間佛教思想的形成為切入點, 來觀照現代儒佛關係的展開內容及其意義所在。

Parallel abstracts


As a phenomenon of ideological trend in Chinese culture in the 20(superscript th) century, the origin of the relationship of Human Realm Buddhism and modern Confucianism is an issue worthy of being paid attention to. At the beginning of the 20(superscript th) century, the relationship of Confucianism and Buddhism was being established. Buddhism adapted itself and transformed its ways in preaching at the best moment as well as in promoting the religion. In addition, it was also closely related with the Confucians' way of interpreting ”modern” in the history of ideology.In the first half of the 20(superscript th) century, Ma Yi-fu(1883-1967), Syong Shih-li(1885-1968), Liang Shu-ming(1893-1988) had different views about Buddha dharma, which drew_ corresponding responses from monks who were undergoing transformation. From such responses, the monks showed their ideology which was different from that of the traditional Confucians' ”Learning Buddhism so as to know Confucianism” and ”Learning Confucianism so as to know Buddhism.” Objectively the preaching and promoting of Buddhism was stimulated to transform Buddhism from traditional ”mountain-forest Buddhism” to ”Human Realm Buddhism” and more effort was made in the realization of Buddhism not only in the aspect of its system but also in the aspect of daily life.As to the influence of the ideology of Human Realm Buddhism to the thoughts of the modern Confucianism, it is explicitly shown by their having 'religious' be all included in Buddhism. And the concrete response of the venerable Tashi to the ideological trend like this is worthy to be further discussed and reflected on. This text focuses on the shaping of the ideological trend of the Venerable Tashi, taking a close look at the content of the development of the relationship between the modern Confucianism and Buddhism.

References


太虛:《評梁潄溟東西文化及其哲學》,《太虛大師全書》第50 冊,香港佛學書局印行本, 第303-305頁
太虛:《略評新唯識論》,《太虛大師全集》第49 冊,第144、145、147、159頁。
太虛:《新唯識論語文本再略評》,《太虛大師全集》第49冊,第188 頁
太虛:〈複段執政書〉,《太虛大師全書》第51 冊, 第175頁。
太虛:《提供談文化建設者幾條佛學》(1935年),《全書》第40 冊, 第118頁

Cited by


吳毓純(2013)。倫常道•菩提心——李炳南居士儒佛思想探析〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU.2013.00946
胡紹嘉(2013)。兼義顧利,儒佛兩可:以戰後臺灣第一代本省籍企業家吳修齊的生命故事為例師大學報:語言與文學類58(2),109-134。https://doi.org/10.6210/JNTNULL.2013.58(2).05

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