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佛教生命倫理學之研究方法論

Methodology of the Buddhist Bioethics Studies

Abstracts


佛教「生命倫理學」相關議題之研究,三項準備工夫必不可少:一、掌握佛教倫理學之系統理論。二、於經典文獻蒐尋直接或間接的「教證」。三、進修該諸生命科學領域的專業知識。運用佛教倫理學的系統理論而作相關研究,要點有五:一、釐清佛法對「生命」的定義與對「人」的定位,這會影響到吾人對動物與胚胎、胎兒倫理爭議的看法。二、「生命」的定義,影響到學科的分類。依於佛法,必將動物與胚胎、胎兒都納入生命倫理學(而非環境倫理學)的範疇。三、佛法對生命施以道德關懷的判準係感知能力,而非理性或神性。判準不同,就會導致道德關懷的對象(是否涵蓋動物與胚胎、胎兒)有所差異。四、依佛法來檢視一般倫理學的系統理論,進以辨明:依於佛法之系統理論,應當如何下手進行生命倫理諸般議題之研究?五、運用佛法的「中道哲學」,即在可見聞覺知的因緣條件之中,無私地作相對最好的抉擇。以此作為遂行個人理念或推動公共政策的實踐綱領。中道哲學,是依情境考量以照顧到個別差異的之方法論,但還是必須在「眾生平等」的基本認知之下,依「護生」的前提以為之。絕不可美其名為「尊重多元」,以文化特性或個人品味的差異為藉口,而將殘害眾生的行為,加以正當化或合理化。

Parallel abstracts


In studying topics related to the study of Buddhist Bioethics, there are three preparatory works that cannot be neglected:1. To master the theoretical system of the study of Buddhist ethics.2. To find direct or indirect 'teaching proofs' from the Buddhist texts/scriptures.3. To learn the professional knowledge of the various life science studies.When applying the theoretical system of Buddhist ethical studies in related research, there are five important points of consideration:1. The aim of Buddhist ethical studies is to clarify the Buddhist's definition of life and the status of human beings. This will affect our views on the controversial ethical topics of animals, embryos and foetus.2. The definition of life will also affect subject classification. According to Buddhism, we should include animal, embryo and foetus into the scope of Bioethics studies (and not in the environmental ethics studies).3. The Buddhist's justification for the ethical concern of life is founded on the ability to perceive/feel, not on intellect or what is God-given. Due to differences in judgment, the opponents that are included in the scope of ethical concern would also vary (so as to consider whether animal, embryo and foetus are included).4. By analysing the theoretical system of the common/general study of ethics from a Buddhist perspective, we may further clarify/explain how we could study the various topics of Bioethics according to the Buddhist theoretical system.5. We should try to apply the Buddhist's Middle Path Philosophy-that is, to make a relative best choice among the causes and conditions that we can see, hear, sense and know-so that it becomes our practical guideline for individual ideology or in promoting public policies.The Middle Path Philosophy is a methodology that takes into consideration the circumstances so as to perceive individual differences. However, this approach has to be founded on the fundamental understanding that all sentient beings are equal, and with 'protecting lives' as the premise. We should never rationalise or legitimatise actions that bring harm to sentient beings by glorifying it with excuses like 'respecting diversity' and uniqueness of culture or differences in individual taste.

References


林火旺(2001)。倫理學。台北:五南圖書出版公司。
李瑞全(2002)。儒家生命倫理學。台北:鵝湖出版社。
黃慶明(2000)。倫理學講義。台北:洪葉文化事業有限公司。
釋昭慧(1995)。佛教倫理學。台北:法界出版社。
釋昭慧(2003)。佛教規範倫理學。台北:法界出版社。

Cited by


凃均翰(2016)。佛教生命倫理學對臨終倫理議題之探究〔博士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU201603441
林祐立(2013)。農場動物福利之實然與應然-以我國法制之檢討分析為中心〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU.2013.10921
許惠菁(2008)。動物保護入憲模式之探討—從「權利觀點」出發〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU.2008.10465
王建文(2009)。廢除死刑之法理研究〔碩士論文,國立臺北大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=U0023-2808200902382700
吳錇涵(2010)。動物保護理論與實踐—以我國動物保護法為觀察對象〔碩士論文,國立臺北大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=U0023-2506201014381400

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