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非行非坐三昧之修學

Cultivating the Samādhi Through Neither Walking Nor Sitting

Abstracts


本文〈非行非坐三昧之修學〉以《摩訶止觀》為主要文獻依據,《摩訶止觀》乃智者大師(538-597)晚期的作品,其思想已達非常圓熟之境地,可從中看到智顗之智慧結晶。「非行非坐三昧」通行坐及一切事,是智者大師獨創的名詞,因為它是智者大師講完前三種三昧後,為了形成佛法慣用的「四句文法」,故隨順提出此三昧。智顗仍然按照往例——即前三種三昧——而以《請觀音經》作為非行非坐三昧的理論根據,或許這是為了對他自己所提出的行法表示負責。由於非行非坐三昧不拘時地、歷一切事而修,一切事落在現實界即有善事、惡事及無記事之分,故智顗分別從這三方面來闡述其教法。歷諸善方面,菩薩所行之善不外乎行六度,行六度時,於內受方面有「六受」,於外作方面有「六作」,是故歷諸善即以六度之善,行於此十二事。於善中生貪時,可以具體使用「四十八句」之四運來觀修。「歷諸惡」是智顗指出有一類人,事逢戰亂,或者身在官場,在如此的人、事環境條件下,貪瞋癡之惡有時候極為旺盛,若不能允許這種人於惡中修道,難道要眼睜睜看著他沈淪於生死苦海嗎!智顗對一般人並不勸修,因為人的心本來就充滿貪瞋癡了。另有一類人根性本無善惡,不會特別去做好事或壞事,因此智顗又特別開出無記法來攝受這類的眾生,令他們不再於佛法遲緩。智顗的非行非坐三昧是一種包容性相當大的法門,不僅在開宗時就指明利根人修之最好,以意念細膩難掌握故;而且也在歷諸惡與無記時,對其餘的眾生廣開方便之門。但是,智顗以時代因緣故,遭遇皇帝滅佛之事,終究不勸修此法門,可做為佛教界之借境。

Parallel abstracts


Mo-ho chih-kuan is used as the major reference in this thesis, it is the work of Chih-i (538-597) in late period, the very perfect state of his thought had been achieved, so we can see the achievement of his wisdom.”Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi,” applied to walking, sitting and everything, is a noun created by the master Chih-i himself. After Chih-i finished explaining three kinds of samādhi forward in order to make for”four negative propositions” used usually in Buddhist doctrine, so hementioned the samādhi in passing. Chih-i used ch’ing Kuan-yin repentance as basis of the theory about Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi according to the examples earlier, i.e. three kinds of samādhi forward, perhaps heshowed responsibility for the theory created by himself.All activities with reality can be divided into wholesome activities,unwholesome activities and activities that do not have any particular moral valence, Chih-i expounded his theory separately from these three aspects because Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi doesn’t be limited to any time or space, and can be cultivated by experiencing all activities. The section on cultivation of samādhi by resorting to wholesome activities is that sixperfections are no more than how many good works Bodhisattva does, when making six perfections, six perceptions are the part of the internal, six acts are the part of the external, so resorting to wholesome activities deal with twelve forms of activity in total by good of six perfections. When greedinessarise from good, we can concretely use ”forty-eight propositions” about the four phases of mental activation to solve it.The section on cultivation of samādhi by resorting to unwholesome activities is that Chih-i pointed out some people suffered chaos caused bywar or are in officialdom, when they are in the condition of circumstances of personnel matters, evil of greediness, anger and ignorance is sometiems veryflourishing. If we didn’t permit them to cultivate samādhi in evil, we would see them helplessly sinking into suffering sea of birth and death. Chih-i didn’t exhort general public to practice because of human heart full ofgreediness, anger and ignorance originally. Another people don’t have good or bad nature of mind originally, they can’t do good or bad works additionally, so Chih-i also designed the activities specially, which do nothave any particular moral valence, to contain this kind of living creatures and make them not be slow on Buddha’s teaching.Chih-i’s Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi is a kind of way tocontain all situation. Not only, when starting, he pointed out that it’s the best way for wise man to practice it, because thought is too subtle to master. But also, when experiencing unwholesome activities and activities that do not have any particular moral valence, he opened the door of convenient way for other human being. However, because of that time, Chih-i encountered emperor to extinguish something about Buddha. It’s the reason why he didn’t encourage people to practice this way and it could be the reflection of mirror for Buddhism.

References


竺法護譯,《彌勒菩薩所問本願經》,《大正藏》第十二冊。
鳩摩羅什譯,《法華經》,《大正藏》第九冊。
難提譯,《請觀世音菩薩消伏毒害陀羅尼咒經》,《大正藏》第二十冊。
天台大師出,《禪門要略》,《卍續藏經》第九十九冊。
湛然述,《止觀輔行傳弘決》,《大正藏》第四十六冊。

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