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Cultivating the Samādhi Through Neither Walking Nor Sitting



Parallel abstracts

Mo-ho chih-kuan is used as the major reference in this thesis, it is the work of Chih-i (538-597) in late period, the very perfect state of his thought had been achieved, so we can see the achievement of his wisdom.”Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi,” applied to walking, sitting and everything, is a noun created by the master Chih-i himself. After Chih-i finished explaining three kinds of samādhi forward in order to make for”four negative propositions” used usually in Buddhist doctrine, so hementioned the samādhi in passing. Chih-i used ch’ing Kuan-yin repentance as basis of the theory about Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi according to the examples earlier, i.e. three kinds of samādhi forward, perhaps heshowed responsibility for the theory created by himself.All activities with reality can be divided into wholesome activities,unwholesome activities and activities that do not have any particular moral valence, Chih-i expounded his theory separately from these three aspects because Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi doesn’t be limited to any time or space, and can be cultivated by experiencing all activities. The section on cultivation of samādhi by resorting to wholesome activities is that sixperfections are no more than how many good works Bodhisattva does, when making six perfections, six perceptions are the part of the internal, six acts are the part of the external, so resorting to wholesome activities deal with twelve forms of activity in total by good of six perfections. When greedinessarise from good, we can concretely use ”forty-eight propositions” about the four phases of mental activation to solve it.The section on cultivation of samādhi by resorting to unwholesome activities is that Chih-i pointed out some people suffered chaos caused bywar or are in officialdom, when they are in the condition of circumstances of personnel matters, evil of greediness, anger and ignorance is sometiems veryflourishing. If we didn’t permit them to cultivate samādhi in evil, we would see them helplessly sinking into suffering sea of birth and death. Chih-i didn’t exhort general public to practice because of human heart full ofgreediness, anger and ignorance originally. Another people don’t have good or bad nature of mind originally, they can’t do good or bad works additionally, so Chih-i also designed the activities specially, which do nothave any particular moral valence, to contain this kind of living creatures and make them not be slow on Buddha’s teaching.Chih-i’s Neither Walking nor Sitting Samādhi is a kind of way tocontain all situation. Not only, when starting, he pointed out that it’s the best way for wise man to practice it, because thought is too subtle to master. But also, when experiencing unwholesome activities and activities that do not have any particular moral valence, he opened the door of convenient way for other human being. However, because of that time, Chih-i encountered emperor to extinguish something about Buddha. It’s the reason why he didn’t encourage people to practice this way and it could be the reflection of mirror for Buddhism.