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天台宗山家派傳人廣智尚賢淺議

A Brief Study of Rev. Guangzhi Shangxian: the Famous Guru of the Mountain Sect in the Tiantai School

Abstracts


四明知禮中興了天台,廣智、神照、南屏三人繼承乃師的遺志,將天台宗的教觀發揚光大,並且最終形成了山家派裡的三個大系,廣智一系仍然駐守在知禮住過的寺院延慶寺,以四明地區為據點,致力於弘揚天台的活動。廣智繼承了知禮的衣缽,使延慶一系的法脈得以相繼延傳下來,「道化盛行」。廣智完成了知禮的遺著,「續遺妙宗之旨」,使知禮的著作得以完整的傳世。廣智堅決地維護了知禮的權威,捍衛「三千不離實相,實相即是三諦,則三諦皆三千也」的真諦說,並在宗門內反復講說,影響了其他的師門弟子,使知禮的學說得到了傳揚,「學者賴之」。廣智增進了中日佛教的交流。作為一代教主,廣智對山家派的貢獻是存在的,史家評價他「翼讚大教,至為有功,經體一章,尤善發明」,還是公允的。

Parallel abstracts


Rev. Shimingzhili (四明知禮) revived the Buddhist School of Tiantai. His successors, Guangzhi (廣智), Shenzhao (神照), and Nanping (南屏) continued his work and disseminated the moral outlooks of Tiantai. They eventually formed the three major branches of the Mountain Sect (Sangjia) in the Tiantai School. The Guangzhi Branch resided in the Yanqing Temple where Rev. Zhili once lived. They used the Shiming District as their base to promote the practices of Tiantai School. Rev. Guangzhi continued Rev. Zhili's teachings and completed his unfinished work, namely ”The Lost Principle of Tiantai School”. This is how we could have the opportunity to thoroughly understand Rev. Zhili's thoughts and Tiantai's works. Rev. Guangzhi maintained Rev. Zhili's authority by defending his teaching that the three thousand worlds are inseparable from the real laksanal world, that the real laksanal is Trisatya, which means that ”Trisatya is also the three thousand worlds.” Because of Rev. Guangzhi's repeated elaboration and reinforcement of this ”Theory of Satya” among his followers, Rev. Zhili's teachings were broadly taught among the followers and also influenced the scholars of other schools. Moreover, Rev. Guangzhi also enhanced the interactions between Chinese and Japanese Buddhism. As the leader of Tiantai School, Rev. Guangzhi's contribution to the Mountain Sect has been recognized. It is a fair comment when the historians describe him as one who ”excels in his achievements while assisting and enhancing the great Buddhist teaching, a master who integrates sutra discourses and practice and is especially proficient in developing and elaborating Tiantai teachings.”

References


畺良耶舍,《佛説觀無量壽佛經》,《大正藏》册12。
智顗,《妙法蓮華經玄義》,《大正藏》册33。
智顗,《觀音玄義》,《大正藏》册34。
智顗,《佛說觀無量壽佛經疏》,《大正藏》册37。
知禮,《觀無量壽佛經疏妙宗鈔》,《大正藏》册37。

Cited by


吳子正(2015)。宋代天台山家山外第二次論諍─以智者大師的原始思想決疑〔博士論文,國立中央大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=U0031-0412201512071182

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