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Preliminary Study on Urban Climate Governance Theory: Strategical Change, Governance Mode and Risk Assessment


二十一世紀初,全球暖化所引發的氣候變遷,爲人類發展帶來前所未有的挑戰;另一方面,城市成爲多數人口居住地的態勢也已然成形,且在全球在地化的推波助瀾下成爲公共治理的要角。爲因應空前且急迫的氣候危機,城市有必要採取嶄新的治理模式,以取代傳統官僚組織之無法治理性和國家回應力之嚴重不足,同時有效統合公、私與第三部門之專業及資源,以促進全面性政策方案之實踐。本研究將對城市氣候治理理論之相關文獻進行初步探討,首先介紹氣候治理的兩種主要策略「減緩」及「調適」,並探討其變遷過程與實踐概況,以瞭解減緩措施何以普及、調適策略難以落實之因素;其次分析「自治」、「賦能」、「供應」,以及「權威」等四項治理模式之意涵與功用,並說明城市政府採用不同治理模式時的角色特質。再者,探討多層次體系中各種協力運作機制之影響,包括水平性的都會區域、城市網絡,以及垂直性的國家政府統治作用。最後介紹Shagun Mehrotra之研究團隊提出的「城市氣候風險評估架構」,瞭解「天然災害」、「易受害性」及「調適能力」三項要素之內容,以作爲促進調適措施實踐的重要理念。透過氣候治理理論的綜合分析,並探討相關架構與概念的應用概況與限制,期能對我國城市氣候治理之初步風險評估、政策工具選擇,以及整體性政策規劃有所助益,以迎接全球氣候變遷之挑戰、邁向城市永續發展。

Parallel abstracts

In the beginning of the 21st century, human development faces unprecedented challenges of climate change triggered by global warming. On the other hand, urban areas have contained over half of the world's population, and are becoming vital actors of public governance through the transition of glocalization. In order to respond effectively, urban areas must come up with new governance measures to supplement the inadequacies of the state and bureaucracy, also, municipalities must collaborate with the private and non-profit sector for the realization of grand policy projects. This study is intended to review relevant theories of urban climate governance. First, introduction of the contents and transition of the two major strategies, mitigation and adaptation will be made. Secondly, we will analyze four modes of governance by Bulkeley and Kern, including self-governing, enabling, provision and authority, and identify the roles of the government in applying these modes. Furthermore, we move beyond the local level, focusing on the effects of various forms of horizontal and vertical collaboration in the multi-level system, including metro regions, city networks, and various measures of national government. Finally, we shall explore the climate risk assessment framework of Shagun Mehrotra, and discuss the three essential elements, hazards, vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Through this study, we hope to provide valuable reference for the decision and implementation of our practice of urban climate policies.

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