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因應氣候變遷之地區性水稻生產調適策略:以苗栗地區為例

Adaptation of Regional Rice Production to Cope with Climate Change: A Case Study in Miaoli

Abstracts


氣候變遷情境的極端溫度(以熱浪、低溫)及異常降雨變化(造成乾旱、淹水等結果)等現象,導致了全球糧食供需失調與糧食安全的議題。臺灣糧食以稻米爲主,由於飲食習慣的改變及大量雜糧(如黃豆、小麥、玉米等)的進口,而呈現產量供過於求,然而糧食自給率仍僅33%。惟從穩定糧食供給與提升糧食自給率的策略性考量,國内仍應當針對氣候的快速變遷進行水稻生產的因應調適,諸如加強耐抗逆境品種選育、調整栽培技術(如灌溉管理、水旱田輪作、合理化施肥等)、改進病蟲害综合管理、評估水田環境效益及宣導促進米食文化多樣性等,皆在現階段重要而値得採行的調適策略。苗栗地區屬日照較低及強風多的稻米生產地區,選育適合的耐抗逆境水稻品種,特性中需加入耐風抗倒伏性。由本區约60%稻農在第1、2期作採不同栽種株距來看,可見苗栗地區部分稻農因應氣候改變已調整栽培技術。爲穩定本區稻米品質讓穀粒充實期避開高溫期,建議插秧第1期作提前15天及第2期作略爲延後,使該生長期獲得接近或低於26°C之安全日均溫。除此之外,尚可因第2期作溫室氣體效應大且產量表現低,而積極推廣第1期作栽培水稻、第2期作獎種植雜糧作物。達到減輕溫室氣體排放,及增加糧食自給率,此栽培模式可作爲臺灣北部稻米生產或活化休耕田政策之參考。

Keywords

水稻 調適 氣候變遷 苗栗

Parallel abstracts


Weather phenomena, such as extreme temperatures (heat waves and low temperatures) and abnormal rainfall levels (droughts and floods) caused by climate change, have called international attention to imbalances in the supply and demand of food and food security. The supply of food in Taiwan is based on rice, but changes in dietary habits and the large-scale import of grains (e.g. soybeans, wheat, and corn) have caused excess supply, even though only 33% of the food supply is produced domestically. To conform to domestic policies ensuring a steady food supply and increasing the ratio of food self-sufficiency, domestic rice production should be adjusted in response to rapid climate changes. Cultivating stress-resistant varieties, adjusting cultivation techniques (e.g., irrigation management, crop rotation in paddies and upland fields, and sensible use of fertilization), improving integrated pest management, evaluating the environmental benefits of paddies, and promoting the diversification of rice diets are all critical strategies that are worth pursuing. Miaoli lacks abundant sunshine and experiences strong winds; thus, lodging resistance should be a target characteristic in the selective breeding of stress-resistant rice. Approximately 60% of rice farmers in Miaoli adjust their plant spacing in the first season and the second season, respectively, indicating that Miaoli farmers have already adjusted their cultivation techniques to adapt to climate change. To stabilize the quality of rice crops in the area, it is suggested that rice seedlings be transplanted 15 days earlier in the 1st season of cultivation and slightly delayed in the 2nd season, so that the grain filling period occurs when the average daily temperature is safely at or below 26 °C. Because greenhouse gas emissions are high and the rice yield is low in the 2nd season, rice cultivation in the 1st season should be actively promoted and cultivation of other crops in the 2nd season should be incentivized. This cultivation method can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase the percentage of food self-sufficiency, and serve as a paradigm for rice production and the re-activation of fallow fields in Northern Taiwan.

Parallel keywords

rice adaptation climate change Miaoli

Cited by


李柏毅(2016)。氣候變遷影響下農民因應旱災的調適行為研究-以桃園市為例〔碩士論文,國立臺北大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=U0023-1303201714250998

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