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化干戈為玉帛-清代及民國時期江西萬載縣的移民、土著與國家

Turning Hostility into Friendship: Immigrants, Natives and the State in Wanzai County, Jiangxi Province in the Qing and the Republic

Abstracts


本文通過對江西萬載縣300年間跌宕起伏的土客衝突-國家應對的細緻展現,把土、客矛盾所引發的一系列衝突事件納入地方社會的權力關係中去分析,考察基層社會與國家政權之間的互動關係以及這種互動與區域社會變遷的關係。明末清初萬載的移民運動與地方動亂交織在一起,「棚民」大規模捲入動亂,給地方社會造成了嚴重破壞,遭到了官方和土著嚴厲的驅逐。清前期移民的入籍過程是一個他們與土著、國家之間較量、迎拒的動態過程。當移民和國家取得認同之後,清中期土、客矛盾開始全面暴露,他們之間的衝突構成了地方社會的主線,最終導致土、客兩大族群的形成。清後期直至民國後期,在自身發展的內在要求下,亦在國家政權力量的干預下,土、客雙方逐步融合。

Keywords

清代 民國時期 江西 移民

Parallel abstracts


This article studies the interaction of migrants, natives and the state, and its impact on social change through a discussion of three hundred years of history in Wanzai county, Jiangxi. From the Qing to the Republic, the complex and delicate relations within and between these three groups evolved over time. In the late Ming and early Qing immigrants from Fujian, Guangdong and southern Jiangxi had played a significant role in Wanzai county. Because of their involvement in local unrest they had been driven out by the local people and the state. In the early seventeenth century, the local government recruited new immigrants in order to promote economic development. These migrants gradually built better relations with the local government, which recognized and legitimized their rights. By the 1730s the state and the immigrants identified with one another. But natives who were registered in the household registration (lijia) registers sought to exclude the newcomers and restrict them to "guest registration" (keji). In response to this exclusion, immigrants developed four strategies for registration, and the process of registration for immigrants became a game played by the three parties. In the mid-Qing, the conflict between natives and immigrants intensified, leading to the formation of ethnic identification and the emergence of two ethnic groups. In the nineteenth century the previously strained relations improved as migrants and natives cooperated in dealing with the threat of the Taiping. Both the Republican government and the Chinese Communist Party took measures to smooth out differences between migrants and natives. Identification as "people of Wanzai" (Wanzai ren), an identity which emerged in the late Republican period, marked the fusion of migrants and natives.

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