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中國東南部醮儀之四種形態

Four Modes of the "Jiao" Ritual in Southeastern China

Abstracts


在過去已有不少學者從地方社會的視角來研究農村的醮儀,注意到它的社會、政治和經濟的含義。本文嘗試把醮儀作為一種宗教儀式來考察,研究其儀式節目內容;目的是通過筆者在過去七年中於中國東南部所觀察到的十場農村醮儀,嘗試論證,我們不能單純地把農村的醮儀看成是道教儀式,當中最少有四種形態:佛中有道、道中有佛、佛道分壇、分工佛道。田野調查的結果顯示,過去我們對佛教儀式在醮儀中扮演的角色較為忽略。筆者更希望進一步指出,四種形態的存在並非顯示農民認識不足,以至混淆不同的傳統,又或簡單地把四種形態歸結為所謂「三教合一」思想的另一典型案例。反之,我們欲嘗試從另一思路去再思佛教在中國如何生根與存在等宗教歷史問題。

Parallel abstracts


In the past, many scholars have studied the "jiao" (Rite of Cosmic Renewal) ritual as performed in Chinese villages from the perspective of local society, focusing on its social, political and economic implications. This essay considers the "jiao" as a religious ritual and investigates its programme in detail. Based on participant observation of ten rituals in villages of southeast China in the past seven years, the author argues that the "jiao" is not a purely Taoist ritual. It occurs in at least four different modes, namely "Buddhist with Taoist elements", "Taoist with Buddhist elements", "Taoist and Buddhist rituals on separate altars", and "division of labour between Taoists and Buddhists". Field observation shows that the role of Buddhist tradition in the "jiao" ritual has been neglected. The author argues that the presence of these four different modes does not mean that the villagers in their ignorance conflate different traditions, nor that this is simply a classic case of the syncretic "Unity of the Three Teachings" of the Chinese religious tradition. On the contrary, the study provides the opportunity to re-think some important religious and historical questions, such as how Buddhism could take root and develop in the Chinese society.

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