透過您的圖書館登入
IP:3.236.145.153
  • Journals

女性祖先或女神-雲南洱海地區的始祖傳說與女神信仰

Female Ancestors or Goddesses: Legends and Cults of Noblewomen in the Erhai Region, Yunnan

Abstracts


本文旨在討論十五世紀以前洱海地區王室女性如何成為女神的歷史。洱海地區的古老王權即南詔大理國(752-1254),透過正統佛教經文與儀式的力量,將土著傳說中的女性角色提升為女神。其貴族社會的形成也多仰賴王室的女性,因為王室女性往往在聯姻關係中扮演連結不同力量與不同社群的重要角色。傳說的內容往往是后妃與黃龍聯姻,將黃龍所代表的神祕的土著力量傳給國王;另一種是公主與梵僧聯姻,將梵僧所具有的儀式能力,傳給貴族集團。由此以王室女性為核心連結而成的系譜關係,表達了以下幾個重點:一、女性透過與外來者聯姻,繁衍出具有意義的統治階層,以此成就具有合法性的王權;二、王室女性的角色具有「聯結」不同社群的意義,同時她們的身份也具有社群關係「再生產者」的意涵,在此脈絡下,王室女子可被視為貴族集團的女性祖先;三、大理國佛教寫經的內容提供了經文與儀式的正統性,確認了女性始祖成為女神的合理基礎;四、女性始祖是王權擴張時男性世系往上流動,以及王權穩固時維持社會均勢關係的重要依據。

Parallel abstracts


The focus of this article is the representation of noblewomen as goddesses in the Erhai Lake region during the Nanzhao and Dali kingdoms (CE 752–1254). Both kingdoms used Buddhist legend and ritual to elevate female characters from local legend into goddesses. Noblewomen played a key role in the formation of the local aristocratic society, for it was marriage alliances involving noblewomen that initially linked different social groups together. Many local legends tell of the marriage of queens to the Yellow Dragon, thereby transferring the mysterious power of the Yellow Dragon to the kingdom. Legends of marriages between princesses and Buddhist monks similarly transfer the ritual power of Buddhism to aristocratic groups. The genealogical connections thus created through noblewomen had several consequences. First, through their marriage to outsiders, noblewomen extended the power of the ruling group. Second, noblewomen played a dual role as the basis for alliances between different social groups and as the reproducers of social relations. They could thus be seen as the female ancestresses of the aristocratic formations. Third, the sutras and rituals provided by the Buddhist texts of the Dali kingdom confirmed the recognition of such female ancestors as goddesses. Third, noblewomen legitimized and yet circumscribed the religious powers of the patrilineages. Fourth, female ancestors played an important role both for the expansion of royal power through the extension backwards of patrilineal ties, and for the maintenance of social order once royal authority had been stabilized.

Read-around