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漢語、苗涇浜、汶類-貴州苗人家譜的混聲與界線

Voices, Boundaries and the Chinese Written Genealogy among the Miao of Eastern Guizhou

Abstracts


本文採取「書寫文類」的觀點,分析受到漢文文字性(literacy)影響下的貴州苗族菁英,如何在以漢字書寫的苗語家譜裡,從苗語與漢語之差異及混聲中,勾劃出文本上的苗漢族群界線。如一般的漢人家譜,這部家譜也以英雄式的祖先故事,來表達他們對祖先、地域、遷移、人群界線及與漢王朝的君臣隸屬關係的想象。雖然苗人地方菁英接受了佔優勢、規範力強的漢字書寫文類,他們憑藉多語的差異經驗,亦展現了他們對邊陲與人群界線的想象及再界定。家譜中的「苗涇浜」(苗語中的「洋涇浜」)雖以漢字書寫,但它並不負載漢語的語意、價值與意識,而只是傳達苗語的聲音、語意,及延續苗人父子聯名的觀點及實踐-即使是通過掩藏、變裝的苗漢語混聲。總之,苗漢混合用語中的意義「偷渡」,破解了家譜中藉由漢字及祖先故事的書寫這兩種因素所創造出的與漢人、漢文化及國家的緊密聯繫的意義。這部家譜成為混聲的「汶類」文類-隱微不清,但給苗人行動者,在文字書寫及閱讀的世界裡想象、擺盪苗漢的邊界。苗人知識菁英的主體性,也由此曲折地找到出路。

Keywords

家譜 語言的混聲 界線 苗族 西南中國

Parallel abstracts


By looking at the Chinese written genealogy as a locally specific literary genre, this article analyses lineage genealogies compiled in Chinese script by educated Miao elites in eastern Guizhou. These elites developed multivocal modes of expression by blending of Chinese and Miao languages, in order to textually construct boundaries between Han and Miao ethnicity. Like Han Chinese genealogies, their genealogies include heroic stories about their early ancestors as a way of expressing ideas about ancestry, locality, migration, ethnic difference, and subordination to Chinese dynastic officials. But the multilingualism of these elites enabled them to use the dominant, standardizing Chinese script to express their own attitudes and redefinition of the meanings of the borderland and of ethnic difference. The texts used a type of pidgin written in Chinese script, but did not simply express Han Chinese cultural values and meanings. Rather, they transmitted the sounds and meanings of Miao language and culture, for example the practice of tekonymy (the renaming of parents after their child). These distinctive elements were concealed or disguised through the creation of a form of Chinese-Miao pidgin. By using this pidgin, Miao elites destabilized the close link that had existed between legends of ancestors, Han Chinese culture and the Chinese state. Thus these genealogies were a distinctive "mixed-voice" genre, that subtly but powerfully gave the Miao a certain agency, allowing them to articulate their perception of ethnic distinction in written form, and creating space for distinctive subjectivity.

Parallel keywords

written genealogy voices boundaries Miao Southwestern China

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