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從忠義亭到忠義祠-臺灣六堆客家地域社會的演變

From the Pavilion of Righteous Men to the Shrine of Righteous Men: The Transformation of Hakka Society of Liudui, Taiwan

Abstracts


義民與客家族羣認同的關係,歷來受到學者的關注。在臺灣南部六堆地區的地域社會建構過程中,帶有强烈國家色彩的「義民」符號是研究的關鍵。從清初開始,該地便形成具有軍事性質的地方社會組織,充當「義民」協助清王朝鎮壓叛亂。由官方敕建的地域祭祀中心的忠義亭,正中供奉的是清帝牌位,從中也不難窺見地方人士試圖以「忠義」符號和清王朝建立長遠關係。但是,近代的臺灣社會經歷了幾次政權轉移的過程,代表地方和清王朝關係的「忠義」,通過禮儀與拜祭的改造,成爲表達和當權政權關係的符號,在這一過程中,歷史便經歷了被不斷重新解釋的過程。六堆地方人士通過禮儀上與國家正統拉近的同時,也在建構着其身份認同的觀念,其背後與國家理論的轉變及其對文化體系的想象有關。在這方面,華德英的「意識模型」理論,可以為我們提供一個參照。雖然清代以原籍地及移居地地域社會組織表達的身份認同觀念,經過日本殖民政府的登記系統,以種族的標籤固定下來;但殖民政府努力推行的是殖民母國文化符號的推廣,以及地方歷史資源的改造,地方人士的不同羣體的身份,並不是國家最關心的問題。直到國民政府接收臺灣之後,與民國國家理論同步發展的客家種族/民系理論,也成爲國家將六堆地方納入正統的方式,族羣身份與國民身份的建構,是同一過程的兩個面相。

Keywords

六堆 義民 臺灣 客家研究 地域社會

Parallel abstracts


The relationship between "righteous men" (yimin) and Hakka collective identity has historically attracted the interest of scholars. In the Liudui region of southern Taiwan, local social organizations with a militaristic character began to develop in the early Qing. Members of these organizations played the role of "righteous men" in assisting the Qing state in suppressing unrest. The image of "righteous men", which was freighted with a strong sense of national consciousness, played a critical role in the construction of local society. This is evident from a study of the local sacrifices at the Pavilion of Righteous Men in Liudui. This shrine was first built by order of state officials, and the central object of sacrifice was a tablet of the Qing emperor. This illustrates how local people sought to use the symbol of "righteous men" to build a longdistance relationship with the Qing court. Since that time Taiwan society has undergone multiple regime changes. Through changes to ritual and sacrifice, the former symbol of relations with the Qing dynasty has become an expression of relations with current political authority. In this process, history has become an infinitely renewable resource for local society. At the same time as local people used ritual forms to draw themselves closer to national orthodoxy, they were also constructing their own notions of identity. This was closely connected to changes in prevailing theories of nationalism and its relation to cultural systems. In this respect, Barbara Ward’s theory of "conscious models" can be very useful. The Qing conception of identity was expressed through social organizations based on place of origin on the mainland and place of settlement on Taiwan. The Japanese colonial authority imposed a system of registration that had the effect of fixing ethnic labels. But the colonial government, seeking to promote the cultural symbols of the metropole and the remaking of local cultural resources, paid little attention to the different ethnic identities within local society. Only after the Nationalist government recovered control of Taiwan did the rhetoric of Hakka identity, which had been developing alongside Nationalist ideas about the nation, become part of the incorporation of Liudui into national orthodoxy. The construction of ethnic identity and national identity were thus two sides of the same coin.

Parallel keywords

Liudui Righteous Civilians Taiwan Hakka studies local society

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