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「忠閭」-元明時期代州鹿蹄澗楊氏的宗族建構

Loyal Village: The Construction of the Yang Lineage of Lutijian, Daizhou in Yuan and Ming

Abstracts


本文探討代州鹿蹄澗楊氏是怎樣一步步建立宗族的組織和禮儀的。楊氏在蒙古國時期起家,開始在地方佔據優勢。此後很長時間,楊氏保持著同居共財的大家庭的模式,有大量的祖墳地,有影堂。元代,隨著世侯地位的失去,楊氏開始建祠堂,裡面供奉祖先的塑像。元明之際的戰亂使得家族內部的關係受到影響,其中明初入籍的楊氏的後人取得家族的控制權。嘉靖時期,家族開始進行「標準」宗族模式的建設,比如修宗譜、立家約、置公田等等,儘管實際上在諸如宗子的設立以及祠堂塑像的安排方面做了很多不符合「標準」的妥協。同時,通過聯宗和追溯祖源,他們努力樹立楊氏正宗的地位。他們的種種努力獲得官府的表彰,官府甚至一度要替楊氏編修族譜。楊氏在元明時期的宗族建設過程中,一方面是人群的分化和重新整合,即利益的不斷再分配;男一方面則是不斷地尋求官府的承認和支持。其背後的關鍵,是楊氏一直都擁有大量的土地。

Keywords

元明時期 代州 鹿蹄澗 楊氏 宗族

Parallel abstracts


This essay explores how the Yang surname of Lutijian (Deer-hoof Stream), Daizhou, Shanxi, gradually created a lineage organization and ritual practice. The Yang surname first came to local power under the Mongols. For a long period thereafter they maintained a large household with shared residence and common property, as well as extensive cemetery fields and an image hall of ancestral portraits. In the Yuan, as the power of hereditary local warlords declined, the Yang built an ancestral hall in which the statues of the ancestors received offerings. The turmoil of the Yuan-Ming transition affected the internal relations of the lineage. Subsequently the descendants of those members of the lineage who had been entered into state registers in the early Ming gained control over the lineage. In the Jiajing period (1522-1566), the lineage began to implement construction of a "standardized" lineage, with the compilation of a genealogy, creation of a lineage compact, establishment of corporate fields and so on, even if there were many practices, for example the role of the descent-line heir or the arrangement of images in the hall, which were not at all standardized. At the same time, through forming alliances with other lineages and tracing the origins of the ancestors, they sought actively to establish themselves as exemplars of orthodoxy. Their various efforts secured them the praise of state officials, to the extent that state representatives continuously sought to compile a genealogy on their behalf. The development of the Yang lineage in the Yuan-Ming period saw on the one hand a process of dissolution and reintegration of the group, which was also an ongoing redistribution of interests, and on the another a never-ending quest for official recognition and support. The crucial background to this was the Yang's continuous ownership of large tracts of land.

Parallel keywords

Yuan-Ming period Daizhou Lutijian Yang surname lineage

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