透過您的圖書館登入
IP:44.210.99.209
  • Journals

宋代朝貢與翻譯-宋代朝貢的特徵與其地域史的意義

Tribute and Translation in the Song Dynasty: The Characteristics of Tributes in the Song and Their Significance in Regional History

Abstracts


東部歐亞這一新型的地域世界史在近年逐漸受到全球範圍的廣泛關注,本文聚焦的問題是如何在東部歐亞中定位以東南亞為首的南方海域世界。文章着眼於以朝貢這種中華式的理念為基礎開展的對外關係,通過硏究上書的翻譯行為,考察宋代朝貢的實際情況及其特徵,並指出其對於南方海域世界所具備的意義。本文首先關注留存在宋代史料中的南方海域世界的上書,發現它是由「蕃字」書寫的原文逐步翻譯、編集而成;接着關注上書的譯者,揭示海商等媒介在翻譯中的重要性;然後着眼於眞里富國上呈的兩篇不同的上書,發現「蕃書」並不僅由朝貢國的文字、語言書寫而成,也有可能使用南方海域世界的通用語言;最後對朝貢時的翻譯行為所持有的意義及朝貢的主體等進行討論,指出宋代的朝貢實質是媒介者通過翻譯等行為製造出來的,其結果是令宋代朝貢不但可以為國家等政治政體服務,也可能為各種級別的人群乃至個人所利用。透過上述分析,本文指出,所謂朝貢的中華式理念,具有在宋朝以及南方海域世界之間搭建經濟基礎設施的功能,宋代的朝貢作為某種「國際公共財產」,孕育宋朝與南方海域世界之間有機的經濟聯結。換言之,根據宋朝提供的朝貢理念,由國家到個人的各類經濟主體都可以與宋朝進行政治、經濟的接觸,由此,一個經濟圈自宋朝與南方海域世界之間誕生。

Parallel abstracts


Examining the translations of the Biao (表, official letters presented to the emperors), this article focuses on the characteristics of tributes in the Song dynasty and their historical importance to the regions of southern maritime Asia. This study discusses "tribute", a concept originated in Chinese historical context, and the foreign relations based on it against the backdrop of the new regional world history, in which eastern Eurasia has received much attention in recent years. This study starts with analyzing the extant Biao preserved in the Song historical materials and points out that they were the letters originally written in foreign languages, so-called Fanshu (蕃書), and were translated and edited through many steps. The translators of the Biǎo and the sea merchants working as intermediaries all played an important role in the process of translation. Two letters written in different languages that were presented to the Song emperor from Zhenlifu (眞里富)suggest that Fanshu not only were written in the letters and languages of the countries paying tribute, but probably also used a common language in regions of southern maritime Asia. This article in the end examines the significance of translation in the process of tribute- presenting and the players involved in the process, and points out that the tributes in the Song were to some extent created by intermediaries and their translations. Thus, these tributes not only served political bodies such as the states, but may also have been utilized by groups or individuals from various social strata This article shows that during the Song dynasty, the Chinese concept of "tribute" functioned as an economic infrastructure linking Song China with regions of southern maritime Asia. Thus, tributes can be seen as a type of "international public goods" that, as the article concludes, cultivated economic ties between Song China and other regions in southern maritime Asia. In other words, the Song dynasty provided a concept of tribute which allowed a wide variety of economic bodies, ranging from states to individuals, to participate in political and economic exchanges with the Song. In result, an economic zone that included both Song China and other regions of southern maritime Asia was created.

Read-around