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Cytotoxicity of Fractions Derived from Crude Water Soluble Extract (CWSE) of Momordica charantia (Linn) Leaves on Lung, Cervical and Breast Cancer Cells

Abstracts


The in vitro cytotoxicity of five fractions derived from the crude water-soluble extract (CWSE) of Momordica charantia, a known medicinal herb was tested on four cancer cell models; MDA-MB 436 and 231 (breast cancer cell lines), HeLa (Cervical cancer cell lines) and A549 (Lung cancer cell lines). Nhexane (D4) < Dichloromethane (D5) < Ethyl acetate (D3) < Butanol (D2) < Aqeous (D6) fractions, all obtained via solvent partitioning in their order of increasing polarity were administered at varied concentrations (50, 75,100, 125, 150 and 200 μg/mL) for 24 h. Cell viability was detected using the MTT assay. Cells treated with the Butanol and Aqueos fractions respectively showed survival rates as high as 96.11% and 85.75% for MDA-MB 231; 93.59% and 88.28% for MDA-MB 436; 101.62% and 96.76% for HeLa and 89.55% and 81.40% for A549 even at 200μg/mL, the highest considered concentration. Whereas, at tested concentrations, cells treated with the N-hexane, Dichloromethane and Ethyl acetate fractions showed marked cytotoxic effects with the Inhibitory concentration (IC_(50)) ranging between 100μg/mL and 125μg/mL. We also observed that the ethylacetate fraction displayed the highest cytotoxicity having its approximate IC_(50) at 100μg/mL, especially for MDA-MB 231 (~51%), HeLa (~54%) and A549 (~43%). The percentage viability for MDA-MB 436 at 100μg/mL is about 64.2%, albeit at 125μg/mL percentage viability dropped to 34.7% This paper may provide cytological evidence for the inhibitory effect of Momordica charantia on certain cancer cell proliferation.

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