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社會變遷中的夫妻資源與家務分工:台灣七○年代與九○年代社會文化脈絡的比較

Conjugal Resources and the Household Division of Labor under Taiwanese Social Change: A Comparison between the 1970s and 1990s Social-Cultural Contexts

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Abstracts


本文探討台灣社會變遷過程中夫妻資源對家務分工的影響機制是否隨著社會文化脈絡的改變而不同。根據一項對於全島已婚女性的抽樣調查資料中,七○年代及九○年代結婚者對於子女出生前家務分工狀況的回溯資料,本研究比較台灣在社會轉型前期與後期的初婚家庭的家務分工影響機制。分析結果發現,在七○年代及九○年代的不同社會文化脈絡下,初婚家庭的夫妻資源對於家務分工的影響機制並無顯著差異,夫妻相對資源皆可能產生協商權力影響家務分工。此外,兩時期丈夫的社經地位對於家務分工一致呈現性別意識差異的效應,顯示了社會變遷中階層性別規範之持續性。兩時期初婚家庭一致呈現的資源協商作用,以及階層差異的持續性,反映出資源權力作用在不同社經脈絡下的異質性。本研究對於七○及九○年代的比較結果,不符合Rodman 奠基於社會發展範型理論所發展的資源修正論對於不同文化脈絡下夫妻資源機制的預期,可能由於台灣在特殊的社會經濟及文化脈絡下,社會及家庭變遷過程與西方社會的變遷模式有別。本文並討論根據社會發展範型理論所發展的家庭變遷理論的適用性。

Parallel abstracts


Based on an island-wide random sampling survey of married women, this article explores whether the effects of conjugal resources on the household division of labor vary between social-cultural contexts. Using retrospective data from 1970s and 1990s marriage cohorts, this paper compares the mechanisms of household labor allocation during the early stage of family development in these two groups. The findings indicate that the effects of conjugal resources on household labor allocation do not vary with the different social-cultural contexts of the 1970s and 1990s; in both contexts, the spouses' relative resources could be transformed to bargaining power affecting the household labor allocation. In addition, the effects of husbands' socioeconomic status in the two contexts suggest the influence of gender ideologies associated with particular classes and the persistence of class-gender norms. The evidence of the resource power effect and the persistence of class differences indicate the heterogeneity of the resource power mechanism, which varies with different socioeconomic contexts. The evidence does not support Rodman's theory that resources-power mechanism varies with social- cultural contexts of the social developmental stages. This may be attributed to the uniqueness of social developmental trajectories under Taiwan's particular socioeconomic and cultural contexts. Based on the study's findings, the adaptability of family change theories, which are rooted in the societal developmental paradigm, are discussed.

References


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李芳儀(2017)。性別化的家庭勞務分工對臺灣與中國婚姻滿意度的影響〔碩士論文,中原大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6840/cycu201700599
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