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避風港:1949年前後的香港佛教

The Sanctuary: Buddhism in Hong Kong around 1949

Abstracts


1945-1949年前後,隨著中華人民共和國建立,大批難民湧入香港,其中有不少佛教界僧人。這些流亡僧,就籍貫上看,以東北與華北、江南地區最多;從年齡上看,有七、八十歲的長老,有十幾歲的僧青年;就教育程度言,有留學生、大學生、中學生、小學生;從資歷上看,有名山古寺退居老和尚,方丈、都監、監院、法師等。這批南下僧人,後來有些留在香港,如天台法脈的倓虛、定西、永惺、體敬等法師,以及南京棲霞山的超塵法師;有些又回到中國,如虛雲和尚、巨贊法師;有些則輾轉到台灣,如印順、演培、續明、道安、樂觀、濟濤、道海、惠光、太滄等法師;甚至到更遠的地方,如樂渡、度輪、敏智法師等之赴美洲。有研究者指出,因香港緊鄰中國大陸,成為「一個黑暗與光明分界的橋樑」。本文想了解的是:1945-1949年前後這些僧人來到香港的歷程,以及他們留港期間的生活狀況;此外,本文也將分析他們對下一步選擇之去處,如台灣、東南亞、北美等地佛教發展的影響。希望藉由本文的探討,可以提供讀者了解1949年前後香港佛教的部分實況。

Parallel abstracts


With the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, a huge number of refugees flooded into Hong Kong, among whom were many Buddhist monks. A majority of the monks came from Manchuria, North China and South China, and their ages ranged from septuagenarians or above and teenage. Their educational backgrounds and monastic experiences also varied. Some of them subsequently settled in Hong Kong, including Masters Tan Xu, Ding Xi, Yong Xing and Ti Jing, who belonged to the Tiantai School. Some, such as Xu Yun and Ju Zan, decided to return to mainland China. Still others headed for Taiwan, like Masters Yin Shun, Yan Pei, Shu Ming, Dao An, Le Guan and Tai Cang, or for America, such as Masters Le Du, Du Lung and Min Zhi. People once argued that, after 1949, Hong Kong had become a bridge dividing the world of darkness and that of light. This article seeks to retrace the paths of these refugee monks between 1945 and 1949, their living conditions while staying in Hong Kong, and how their final destinations impacted the development of local Buddhism in Taiwan, Southeast Asia and North America. This research also seeks to provide a clearer landscape about Buddhism in Hong Kong around 1949.

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