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星雲大師「同體共生」之理念-以平等、慈悲、華嚴法界為線索

Master Xingyun's Idea of "Oneness and Coexistence": On Equality, Compassion and Dharma-realm of Avatamsaka

Abstracts


星雲大師一生強調「同體共生」的思想觀念,希望大眾和平共處,共獲幸福人生,進而在種種福報的基礎上,修持慧業。大師定義「同體」的意涵為「平等、包容」;定義「共生」的意涵為「慈悲、融和」。他總括地指出:「『同體』是平等觀,『共生』是慈悲觀。」大師說:「沒有了慈悲,所行的一切都是魔法。」這即是《華嚴經》所云:「忘失菩提心,修諸善根,是為魔業。」可見,大師依此建構他的「共生慈悲」的理念,於理有據。日本學者鎌田茂雄教授認為星雲大師的「人間佛教」思想建基於《華嚴經》;大師自己亦曾說當初建設佛光山,所設計的「華藏世界」是根據《華嚴經》中須彌藏芥子、芥子納須彌的理念構想而成;此亦可視為大師有依華嚴思想來建構他的「同體共生」的理念。本文最後反省以共生精神,來建立人間淨土的問題,指出建立淨土雖不容易,但給予眾生信心、歡喜、希望、方便,令其有目標可循,何嘗不是從小幸福趨向大幸福,乃至極幸福之境的方便施設。大師倡導人間佛教,其終極關懷在於建立人間淨土,如果人間就是淨土,那麼,西方極樂世界就在人間,表示「共生」的「淨土」得以在人間成就、完成。

Parallel abstracts


For his whole life, Master Xingyun has promoted the idea of "oneness and coexistence", hoping that people co-exist harmoniously and enjoy happy life, on which and many different merit they could advance in their spiritual cultivations. The Master defines "oneness" as "equality" and "tolerance", while "coexistence" as "loving-kindness" and "integration". His own summary is that "'oneness' is the contemplation of equanimity; 'coexistence' is the contemplation of loving-kindness." He also says, "Without loving-kindness everything one does is the act of Māra." This is like what the Avatamsaka-sūtra states "practicing the roots of goodness without bodhi-citta is the act of Māra." Hence, the Master's idea of "oneness and coexistence" is based on a canonical doctrine. The Japanese scholar Shigeo Kamata suggests that Master Xingyun's thought of Humanistic Buddhism is built on the Avatamsaka-sūtra. In fact, the master once said that when starting to construct the Buddha-light Mountain the design of the "World of Lotus Store" was inspired by the doctrine of a mustard seed containing a Sumeri, which evidently shows that the Master indeed based his idea of "oneness and coexistence" on some doctrines of the Avatamsaka teaching. This paper treats the question of building a humanistic pure land with the principle guidance of "coexistence". It suggests that even though to build a pure land is not easy [the thought] enhances the confidence of beings, bringing them happiness, hope and convenience, and setting them a goal, which all serves as a skillful means actually leading the beings from small bliss towards greater happiness and even to the happiest state. The master promulgates Humanistic Buddhism for the ultimate purpose is to build a pure land. If the pure land is nowhere but in the human world, then so will be the Western Pure Land of Amitabha, which is to say that a pure land of "coexistence" can be realized and completed right in human world.

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