The reduction of poverty and increased food security are two main objectives of the agricultural growth process. But growth in Central America has not been pro-poor, and a large share of the rural population lives in conditions of poverty and food insecurity. These problems are related to the prevalence of inequalities between the agricultural sector and the rest of the economy. These inequalities have been growing in Central America, as the process of structural transformation unfolds. The particularities of this process in Central America are highlighted and the effect of these growing inequalities on poverty and food insecurity is review. Conclusions are drawn on the need for further research to focus on intra-sectoral inequalities in the case of Central America, because of the presence of a dual agricultural sector, where a small farmer’s sub-sector coexists with a large exporting agricultural sub-sector.