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台灣臨床佛教宗教師本土化之靈性照顧

The Indigenous Culture of Spiritual Care in Taiwan

Abstracts


本文從靈性的定義、照顧架構、對善終的影響,以及靈性照顧人員(臨床佛教宗教師)的培訓等角度,闡述依據佛法建立本土化靈性照顧模式之可行性,並舉實際個案照顧經驗為例,說明如何在照顧困境中突破關卡。 靈性照顧的七大要素從靈性與身心的關係、無始以來存在的條件、死後的生命、靈性的內涵、外顯,以及靈性的療效等角度說明靈性照顧的實作性及有效性,且以此建立靈性照顧的架構理論。「靈性」定義為:「對正法的感應證悟與理解能力,是一種生命力及心智成熟的表現」。正法指的是在面對死亡的過程中幫助心性成長的智慧。能夠感應正法,就能夠以學習成長的心境面對生死,產生智慧,緩解身心痛苦與死亡恐懼,得到善終。因此,照顧架構上,以學習成長的方式,將善終目標分成「病情告知」、「接受死亡」、「感應靈性存在」、「依持佛法」作為不同階段的標竿,以減少對死亡的恐懼,提早對死亡的準備,完成遺願,終至超越死亡。 臨床上,受過訓練的佛教宗教師參與緩和醫療團隊照顧,經常扮演著直接而鮮明的角色,成為病人及家屬在靈性問題上的求助對象,以維持病人的生命力,直至臨終前心性仍不斷學習成長;臨床法師的培訓需要經過分階的過程,以問題為導向的自主性學習,重視主、客觀和直觀的評估方式,從瞭解病人的身心症狀及信仰著手,學習期間以擔任第一線照顧的角色,建立關係後,透過專業且持續性照顧,對負責個案痛苦的緩解、內在力量和生命品質的提升皆有所助益。

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Parallel abstracts


Palliative care is a modification of the traditional medical paradigm for doctors; its goal is to help terminal cancer patients walking through the last journey of life and obtaining peace. To achieve this goal, hospice palliative care is mainly focus on four directions of care-physical, mental, social, and spiritual aspects. These four aspects of care are emphasized in the different stages of medical treatment process. The responsibility and the mission of palliative team member are depended on patients' need. They would be the primary care person while patients accept them to join on the last journey of life. As the death is approaching, the spiritual care appears more important. We think ”sharing the journey” and ”letting go” are key issues on the spiritual care. The last journey for cancer patients is not only to understand the conditions of the illness and the reduction of pain, they should also understand the situation that they are dealing with and the problems such as fear, hope, belief, and etc. To be with patients on their last journey and sharing their sufferings would possibly give the patients spiritual peace. If there is an effective method to help patients acquiring the spiritual nurture and to help patients developing their inner power, then, it would not only encourage the patients and their family, but the hospice workers and the life-and-death educators would also learn and promote during the terminal care process. Therefore, the establishment in the profession of spiritual care, the accumulation of experiences and training of the allied personnel in this profession are very important. Most people in Taiwan believe in Buddhism. Thus, the clinical-experienced Buddhist chaplains in the profession of spiritual care are playing an important role of establishing the indigenous culture of hospice care. In the past four years, many Buddhist chaplains had accepted the clinical-oriented training program of spiritual care. They go through a proper analysis and the problem inductions to develop patients' spiritual state, to liberate their restraint, and to reduce their pain. The research had proved that if the hospice member could inspired patients the four limitless minds (i.e. kindness, compassion, joy, and giving) as well as equality, emptiness and wisdom state of the Buddha's teaching during the limited life course, the interaction with patients and the enlightenment of their spiritual state would assist them to let go the suffering and obtain the liberation.

Cited by


簡采汝(2009)。人間淨土的開展 : 宗教信仰於癌症患者生活品質相關性研究〔碩士論文,法鼓文理學院〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6819/DILA.2009.00001
張慎儀(2007)。敘事旅程—癌症病人生命經驗之回顧與剖析〔碩士論文,國立臺灣大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://doi.org/10.6342/NTU.2007.01463
陳秉華、黃奕暉(2019)。諮商心理師對安寧病人的整全照護中華心理學刊61(4),393-415。https://doi.org/10.6129/CJP.201912_61(4).0007

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