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從來台日本佛教的傅布看宗教本土化

Viewing Localization of Religion through Spread of Japanese Buddhism in Taiwan

Abstracts


宗教與人類是並存的,而宗教更因人類的移動而達到被傳播的效果,但宗教能否在該地存續,必須視它與該民族的風土文化能否結合?也就是說能否本土化而決定。譬如以出自中印度的佛教爲例來談,眾所周知,佛教是紀元前五、世紀,由位在北印度,今尼泊爾的多羅伊盆地的釋迦族小國迦毗羅衛國的喬達摩悉達多所創設。紀元前三世紀,因孔雀王朝的第三代阿育王(在位紀元前269-232),大力護持之下,由恆河流域普及到整個印度及西北印度,而西北印度即今日印巴交界克什米爾一帶,此地正是東西文化交匯處,佛教在此地發展,而有大乘佛教的出現。此系統的佛教,由紀元一世紀起,經由中亞西亞(即西域),接續地傳入漢地,歷經五、六百年的歲月,佛教與漢地本土的儒教、道教,由排斥,接納,衝突到融合,所謂儒釋道三教合一,而徹底地漢化。教義上的天台、華嚴二宗:修行層面上的禪淨二宗,就是漢化後的佛教,此漢化後的佛教,經由江南、閩南傳入台灣,存活在台灣人的世界裡,紀元1895年,台灣成爲日本的領土,隨著日本人的移民台灣,日本八宗十三派的佛教也先後傳入台灣,他們的傳教師中,不乏熱心的傳教者,他們積極地將日本化的佛教,向台灣人傳播,但是歷經50年,日本化的佛教對台灣這塊土地上的人人,產生了多少的影響力?也就是說,它對台灣本土的佛教注入了怎樣新的動力?又與本土的文化結合的程度如何?拙文將以來台曹洞宗、淨土宗爲例作探討。

Parallel abstracts


Religions exist as long as human beings exist. When humans moved, as a result, the religions were spread. However, whether a religion can continue to exist, it depends on how well this religion has been able to integrate with the local culture. In other words, the continual existence of a religion is highly dependent on how well this religion can be adopted locally. Let's use Buddhism as an example which originated in Central India. It’s well known that Buddhism was founded in the fifth century B.C. in northern India, in what is now known as Nepal, by Siddhartha Gautama, a young prince of the Sakyan kingdom. In the third century B.C., under the patronage of third Mauryan emperor Ashoka (260-232 B.C.), Buddhism flourished and spread from the surrounding area of the Ganges River throughout India and northwest India. The northwest region of India is between India and Pakistan in Kashmir areas. This area is also where the cultural exchange between the east and the west occurred. Mahayana Buddhism evolved out of the development of Buddhism in this region. During the first century A.D., the Buddhism developed in this area was spread eastward through the Central and West Asia trade routes to China. After five to six hundred years, Buddhism went through the long process of rejection and acceptance, conflict and unification, and was later integrated with China's Confucianism and Taoism, giving origin to unification of three teachings into one. In China, Buddhism was completely localized. Examples of Buddhism after being localized in China are the Schools of Tiantai and Huayan, which emphasize the purport of the teaching, and the schools of Chan and Pureland, which emphasize practice. Having been localized in China, Buddhism was then carried to Taiwan through Jian Nan and Mm Nan. Now, Buddhism lives in the Taiwanese' world. In 1895, Taiwan became a Japanese colony for the next 50 years. The Japanese immigrants brought with them Japan's eight schools and thirteen divisions of Buddhism to Taiwan. Among the different preachers, there were many passionate ones who actively promoted the localized Japanese Buddhism in Taiwan. After 50 years, what has been the influence of localized Japanese Buddhism on the people in Taiwan? In other words, what effect and new driving forces did it have on the Taiwanese Buddhism? What degree of integration did it have with the local cultural background? This paper investigates these topics using Taiwanese Pure Land School as an example.

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