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滋血液,養神氣:日治到戰後臺灣的養鱉知識、養殖環境與食療文化

Nourishing the Blood and Cultivating the Spirit: Breeding, Dietary Therapy, and Consumption of Soft-Shelled Turtles in Taiwan from the Japanese Colonial Era to the Present

Abstracts


鱉,在近代臺灣水產中所扮演的角色特殊,經濟價值不若虱目魚、吳郭魚與牡蠣蝦蟹,既無法製成水產加工品,亦鮮少以冷凍方式行銷海外,然而,其特殊性卻與傳統漢人的「食療文化」緊密結合。清代,臺灣鱉屬野生,已有零星食鱉與入藥記載。日治時期,鱉的來源從野生捕撈轉為人工養殖,受傳統漢藥影響,日本人將鱉視為珍貴補品,從明治時期開始進行養鱉試驗,領臺後更致力於改善臺灣鱉的質與量,以填補國内消費市場。戰後,國府遷臺,養殖業以經濟水產為主,養鱉業日漸式微。1970至90年代,養鱉成為農家副業;90年代後,受「馬家軍效應」影響,臺灣業者相繼投入養鱉業以供應中國市場。受到食療文化影響,臺灣民間視鱉為可滋陰、涼血、補虛與補氣之食補聖品,鱉肉、鱉甲與鱉血等皆有療效。然而,因鱉不易取得,加上婦女不諳宰殺,因此甚少端上家庭餐桌,多在外食餐館出現,近來更結合生技以保健食品之樣貌出現。本文聚焦近代臺灣鱉的養殖與消費,從歷史脈絡考察自日治時期水產政策、戰後養鱉發展、「馬家軍效應」以及與之相關的食療文化。

Keywords

臺灣史 日本殖民 養鱉業 食療

Parallel abstracts


In modern Taiwan, soft-shell turtleshave functioned chiefly as a dietary therapy. In line with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the Taiwanese have long regarded turtles as a dietary therapy that can nourish yin, cool blood, and benefit qi. Taiwanese have believed that, in particular, turtles' shells, heads, blood, meat, bladders, and eggs have salubrious effects. However, because turtles were traditionally hard to acquire, they rarely appeared on Taiwanese dining tables and were available for purchase mainly in specialty stores and seafood restaurants. Thus it was that, in the Qing era, Taiwanese tended to use wild turtles as medicine. By contrast, in the Japanese colonial era, Japanese regarded turtles as a precious food, and to satisfy demand for turtle products in their homeland, the colonizers in Taiwan launched a turtle-husbandry program aimed at improving incubation, feeding, and shipping methods. After World War Two, Taiwan's newly established Kuomintang government promoted only the most monetarily valuable aquatic products. Because the consumption value of turtles was considerably less than that of Milkfish, Tilapia, and shellfish, turtle husbandry on the island declined to the level of a side business. In the 1990s, however, the celebrated Chinese track-and-field team known as Team Ma claimed that eating turtle products enhanced physical vitality, triggering a spike in China's consumption of turtle products. Taiwanese farmers, with their skills in turtle husbandry, quickly responded to the renewed demand, revitalizing the island's turtle industry, which continues to thrive to this day. In examining the themes of husbandry and consumption in Taiwanese history, this paper argues that four main factors - TCM principles, Taiwan's evolving turtle-breeding system, colonial Japan's aquatic policy, and the Team Ma phenomenon - shaped the significance of turtles in modern Taiwanese history.

References


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