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原住民族地方性道德世界(Local Moral Worlds)觀與司法正義:以賽夏族為例

Indigenous Local Moral Worlds and Judicial Justice: A Case Study from the Saysiyat

Abstracts


台灣當代的法律制度由於缺乏多元文化主義的觀點,使得國家的實定法迄今尚未將原住民族的傳統慣習納入審判機制中,導致原住民族不斷地面臨到許多法律歧視與權利衝突。本文藉由分析賽夏族的神話故事及社會組織運作之方式,說明賽夏族的地方性道德世界觀如何被實踐在賽夏族人的日常生活中。研究結果發現,賽夏族的地方性道德世界觀具有規範性、常態性與強制性,是賽夏族人的認知與行為的範疇,個人行為如果違反此範疇即會受到賽夏族身體政治的規訓。此外,雖然賽夏族社會組織內並無法院機構審理和裁判族眾的法律爭端,但透過氏族長老的合議制,依循著嚴謹的地方性道德世界觀,處理部落的各項公共事務與解決糾紛,使得賽夏族社會形成一個如有機體般的系統,穩定與和諧地運作,直到晚近殖民與國家力量介入後,賽夏族長老合議制度才被國家體制所取代。為解決國家實定法對當代原住民族社會所造成的法律歧視與權利衝突等問題,政府應參著「聯合國原住民族權利宣言」的精神及落實「中華民國憲法」增修條文第十條規定,依賽夏族人的意願,與賽夏族人合作,將賽夏族傳統慣習納入法院參審的機制中,使審理及裁判法律爭端的過程符合社會及程序正義的原則。為因應原住民族專庭(股)的設置,未來在法官的養成教育中應加入相關的課程,增加法官在審理原住民族案件時的文化敏感度。最後,未來應透過研究原住民族的道德世界觀,深化台灣民族法學的理論深度,並應用研究結果改善原住民族參審制度,營造一個友善的審判環境,提升原住民族對司法的信任度,使原住民在遇見各項法律糾紛時,願意循司法途徑尋求解決之道。

Parallel abstracts


The indigenous peoples of Taiwan have confronted the judicial discrimination in the past several decades. The dominant judicial institution of the nation-state designed by Han Chinese has resulted in social injustice and the violation of indigenous human right in the court in Taiwan. The purpose of this study aims to explore the relationship between indigenous local moral world and judicial justice by scrutinizing the oral histories of the Saysiyat and investigate the social mechanism related to the practices of local moral world in Saysiyat society. The results of this study suggested three components of the local moral world of the Saysiyat: the normative element, regularity, and enforcement. These components lead to the categories that guide the appropriate recognition processes and behaviors of the Saysiyat. The punishment is given to those whose behaviors are out of the categories. Although the court is not found in Saysiyat society, the tribal conference that consists of all clan’s representatives plays a central role in solving the conflicts among tribal members, and between the Saysiyat and outsiders. Accordingly, the concept of law as well as a cultural component do exist, and are practiced in Saysiyat society. To improve indigenous inferior position in the judicial institution, the nation-state should take the following strategies. First, the court should follow indigenous customs to organize a tribal conference that the judges can work with when a trial takes place. Second, new courses related to indigenous cultures and societies should be introduced and taught at the law school to build up students’ cultural competence of indigenous peoples. Finally, scholars should explore the indigenous concept of law by studying indigenous local moral world, and then use the knowledge to create a friendly and legal infrastructure that can contribute to the promotion of indigenous judicial justice and human right.

References


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Hoebel, Adamson E.(2006).The Law of Primitive Man: A Study in Comparative Legal Dynamics.Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.

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