Title

臺灣之進出口與臺灣接單海外生產對製造業表現的影響-地區別貿易效果之比較

Translated Titles

The Effects of Trade and Overseas Production of Taiwan's Export Orders on the Performance of Taiwan's Manufacturing Industries: A Comparison between Trade with Different Regions

Authors

蔡易如(Tsai, I-Ju)

Key Words

貿易 ; 臺灣接單海外生產 ; 要素移動性 ; 就業 ; 場所數 ; 實質薪資 ; Trade ; Overseas Production of Export Orders ; Factor Mobility ; Employment ; Number of Establishments ; Real Wages

PublicationName

經濟研究

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

54卷2期(2018 / 07 / 31)

Page #

243 - 286

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

本研究利用2006年及2011年行政院主計總處工商普查與海關進出口統計資料,分析臺灣對中國大陸與香港、對中國大陸與香港以外的地區(簡稱其他地區)進出口、以及臺灣接單海外生產對製造業表現的影響。實證結果顯示,出口至中國大陸與香港年成長率每增加1%,就業年成長率增加0.07%,但其對場所數與平均實質薪資則無顯著影響。出口至其他地區年成長率每增加1%,就業年成長率增加0.14%。以絕對量而言,在2006年至2011年間,出口至中國大陸與香港每年可帶動4,801個就業人數的增加,出口至其他地區則為9,951人,合計可解釋89%就業人數年增量。再者,出口至其他地區年成長率每增加1%,場所數之年成長率提高0.13%;此出口每年帶動368個場所數增加,占實際總增量的41%。臺灣出口至中國大陸與香港相對於出口至其他地區之就業與場所數創造效果較小,顯示與貿易對手之間的要素移動性高低會影響貿易帶動效果的大小。在進口部分,則不論自何地進口,對就業、場所數與平均實質薪資之影響均不顯著。臺灣接單海外生產之當期效果顯示,其年成長率每增加1%,平均實質薪資之年成長率微幅增加0.012%。臺灣接單海外生產之長期累積效果則為,以中國為生產基地的臺灣接單海外生產金額相對於該產業出口值比率上升時,該產業在臺灣場所數相對減少,不利創新。

English Abstract

This paper uses Taiwan's Industry, Commerce and Service Censuses of 2006 and 2011 and trade statistics to analyze the impact of cross-strait trade, its trade with regions other than mainland China and Hong Kong (other regions hereinafter), and overseas production of Taiwan's export orders (OPEO) on the performance of the country's four-digit manufacturing industries. The empirical findings are that a one percentage point increase in exports to China (including mainland China and Hong Kong) and other regions raises employment across industries by 0.07 and 0.14 percentage points, respectively. The estimate suggests annual employment increases of 4,801 and 9,951 workers stemming from the growth in exports to China and other regions over the period 2006-2011, respectively, accounting for 89% of the actual annual total increment in employment. Furthermore, a one percentage point increase in exports to other regions results in a 0.13 percentage point rise in the number of establishment units. The growth in exports to other regions prompts an increase in the number of establishment units by 368, accounting for 41% of actual annual incremental growth. However, Taiwan's exports to China have no significant effect on the increases in the number of establishment units and Taiwan's imports from China incur no significant changes in employment, the number of establishments and real wages in Taiwan. The larger creation in Taiwan's employment and establishments brought about by exports to other regions than that to China suggests that the relative importance of trade-induced effects are subject to factor mobility between trade partners. Additionally, although a one percentage point increase in OPEO leads to a slight 0.012 percentage points increase annually in average real wages during the same period, the long-run accumulated effect of overseas production is negative, i.e., an increased ratio of overseas production in mainland China to an industry's exports results in a decrease in the number of establishments in Taiwan.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 經濟學
Reference
  1. Fung, L.,Liu, J.-T.,Wang, F.-M.(2013).Are FDI in China and Parent Firm Exports Substitutes or Complements? An Empirical Study of Taiwanese Manufacturing Firms.Taiwan Economic Review,41(2),167-194.
    連結:
  2. 李宥蒼、張國益(2012)。垂直式與水平式產業內貿易決定因素之實證分析─臺灣主要製造業之驗證。臺灣經濟預測與政策,42(2),119-154。
    連結:
  3. 彭美玲(2009)。三角貿易對研究發展與購買技術的影響︰以臺灣製造業為例。應用經濟論叢,86,187-218。
    連結:
  4. Acemoglu, D.,Autor, D.,Dorn, D.,Hanson, G. H.,Price, B.(2016).Import Competition and the Great US Employment Sag of the 2000s.Journal of Labor Economics,34(S1),S141-S198.
  5. Antonietti, R.,Cainelli, G.(2011).The Role of Spatial Agglomeration in a Structural Model of Innovation, Productivity and Export: A Firm-level Analysis.The Annals of Regional Science,46(3),577-600.
  6. Autor, D. H.,Dorn, D.,Hanson, G. H.(2013).The China Syndrome: Local Labor Market Effects of Import Competition in the United States.The American Economic Review,103(6),2121-2168.
  7. Bloom, N.,Draca, M.,van Reenen, J.(2016).Trade Induced Technical Change? The Impact of Chinese Imports on Innovation, IT and Productivity.The Review of Economic Studies,83(1),87-117.
  8. Fujita, M.,Krugman, P.,Venables, A. J.(1999).The Spatial Economy-Cities, Regions, and International Trade.Cambridge, MA:The MIT Press.
  9. Haltiwanger, J.,Jarmin, R. S.,Miranda, J.(2013).Who Creates Jobs? Small Versus Large Versus Young.The Review of Economics and Statistics,95(2),347-361.
  10. Kerr, W. R.,Nanda, R.,Rhodes-Kropf, M.(2014).Entrepreneurship as Experimentation.Journal of Economic Perspectives,28(3),25-48.
  11. Pierce, J. R.,Schott, P. K.(2012).A Concordance between Ten-Digit U.S. Harmonized System Codes and SIC/NAICS Product Classes and Industries.Journal of Economic and Social Measurement,37(1-2),61-96.
  12. Rosenthal, S. S.,Strange, W. C.(2003).Geography, Industrial Organization, and Agglomeration.The Review of Economics and Statistics,85(2),377-393.
  13. Saxenian, A.(1994).Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128.Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press.
  14. Yang, C. H.,Liou, M. H.(2013).Intra-Industry Trade and Labor Market Adjustment in Taiwan.Emerging Markets Finance & Trade,49(S2),126-144.
  15. 林明坤(2003)。臺灣地區進口對製造業部門就業之影響。中山人文社會科學期刊,11(1),47-70。
  16. 林俊宏(2002)。國際貿易對勞動市場之影響:臺灣之實證分析。東吳經濟商學學報,36,23-46。
  17. 張萃貞(2003)。臺灣地區商品出口對經濟發展之影響。經濟研究年刊,3,87-108。