Title

左右二側肘屈肌群進行二回合離心運動順序對降低誘發動脈血管硬化之影響

Translated Titles

Effect of performing order of the first and repeated bouts of maximal eccentric exercise of the right and left elbow flexors on arterial stiffness

DOI

10.3966/102472972016064902002

Authors

黃冠菱(Guan-Ling Huang);陳信良(Hsin-Lian Chen);Kazunori Nosaka;陳忠慶(Trevor C. Chen)

Key Words

重複訓練效應 ; 移轉效果 ; 慣用手 ; 非慣用手 ; 頸股動脈波傳導速率 ; repeated bout effect ; cross transfer ; dominant arm ; non-dominant arm ; carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV)

PublicationName

體育學報

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

49卷2期(2016 / 06 / 01)

Page #

143 - 155

Content Language

繁體中文

Chinese Abstract

緒論:近期研究發現,先以一側肢體肌群做一回合離心運動(the first bout of eccentric exercise, EC1)之後間隔2-3週休息之後,改用對側肌群進行相同一回合離心運動訓練(the second bout of EC, EC2)時,可明顯降低引起肌肉損傷之效果,相關文獻稱此現象為交叉重複訓練效果(contralateral repeatedbout effect, CL-RBE)。最近文獻發現,人體以單側肘屈肌群(elbow flexors, EF)進行一回合離心運動引起肌肉損傷(exercise-induced muscle damage, EIMD)時,會誘發暫時性動脈血管硬化之現象,並推測EIMD可能是藉由發炎反應作用,進而誘發動脈血管硬化現象,但目前不清楚人體以同側、對側或甚至於是慣用側(dominant limb, DL)與非慣用側(non-DL, NDL)肌群不同順序等方式,進行二回合離心運動訓練,是否可以有效降低誘發動脈血管硬化之效果。因此,本研究目的在於探討「人體以DL或NDL進行EC1引起肌肉損傷後,換成另一側肌群繼續進行EC2時,其對降低動脈硬化之影響」。方法:招募24位坐式生活的大學健康男性學生為研究對象,並以隨機方式分成:NDL組、DL組或控制組 (control, CON)之中(每組8人)。所有三組都進行二回合EF最大等速(30°/s)離心運動(每回合30次;二回合之間間隔4週);其中,NDL組以非慣用手EF作EC1,慣用手EF進行EC2;DL組先以慣用手EF作EC1,非慣用手EF接受EC2;CON組統一以非慣用手EF作EC1-2。最大自主等長收縮肌力 (maximal voluntary isometric contraction, MVIC)、肌肉酸痛(SOR)、頸、股動脈波傳導速率(carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, cfPWV)、舒張壓、收縮壓及心跳,在每回合訓練前與後第0 (30分鐘)、2、4天各進行一次測驗。以二因子混合設計變異數分析,考驗每個依變項在回合與時間因子之間的差異情形。結果:在EC1之後,除了舒張壓、收縮壓及心跳無產生明顯改變外,其他指標均產生顯著的變化(e.g. MVIC最大下降率:-49 ± 5 %;p < .05),但不同三組之間無差異 (p > .05)。在EC2之後,NDL組(-29 ± 6%)與CON組(-30 ± 5 %)依變項的變化程度明顯比DL組(-39 ± 2 %)來得小。NDL組與CON組在EC2後引起MVIC、SOR和cfPWV變化程度均明顯 (p < .05)小於CON的EC1,但是DL組在EC2後的依變項變化程度與CON組EC1之間無差異(p > .05)。結論:本研究發現,人體先以非慣用手EF作EC1後,在改換成慣用手EF進行EC2時,則可與同側EF產生相同程度之訓練效果,並且能避免誘發動脈血管硬化之效果;但是在一開始先以慣用手EF作EC1後,再改由非慣用手EF作EC2的話,就無法產生降低誘發動脈血管硬化之效果。因此,這些研究結果,將可提供給EIMD研究者作為實驗設計時之參考。

English Abstract

Introduction: Recent studies have found that an initial bout of maximal eccentric exercise (EC1) with one limb performed 2-3 weeks prior to a subsequent bout of the same exercise (EC2) using the contralateral limb could reduce muscle damage on the contralateral limb. This phenomenon is called contralateral repeated bout effect (CL-RBE). Previous studies found that performing one bout of EC using the unilateral elbow flexors (EF) induced muscle damage and transient arterial stiffening, but it is still unknown whether the order in which the two limbs are used [e.g. performing EC1 with the dominant limb (DL) and EC2 with the non-dominant limb (NDL), or vice versa] will affect the magnitude of arterial stiffening. Therefore, the purpose of the present study tested the hypothesis that performing an initial bout of maximal eccentric exercise (i.e., EC1) using either the DL or NDL would result in reduced arterial stiffness following a subsequent bout of eccentric exercise (i.e., EC2) using the opposite limb. Methods: Twenty-four young untrained men were allocated to NDL, DL or control (CON) group (n=8 per group). All groups performed two bouts of maximal eccentric exercise (EC1, EC2) consisting of 30 maximal EF contractions at the angular velocity of 30°/s. The NDL group performed EC2 using the DL at 4 weeks after EC1 using the NDL. The DL group performed EC2 using the non-dominant limb at 4 weeks after EC1 of the dominant limb. The CON group performed EC2 using the NDL at 4 weeks after EC1 using the same NDL. Changes in maximal voluntary isometric strength (MVIC), muscle soreness (SOR), arterial stiffness [carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV)], systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were measured before, immediately after (~30 minutes), and 2 and 4 days after each bout. Changes in each dependent variable over time after eccentric exercise were compared by a mixed-design ANOVA. Results: SBP, DBP and HR were not significantly changed following EC1 and EC2. However, changes in the rest of the dependent variables (e.g. greatest MVIC loss: -49 ± 5 %) showed significantly changes (p < .05) following EC1 without significant differences among the groups. After EC2, both the NDL (-29 ± 6%) and CON groups (-30 ± 5 %) showed significantly smaller changes than the DL group (-39 ± 2 %). Changes in MVIC, SOR and cfPWV of the NDL and CON groups following EC2 were significantly (p < .05) smaller compared with those of the CON group following EC1, but those of the DL group following EC2 showed no significant difference (p > .05) from those of the CON group following EC1. Conclusion: These results suggest that an initial bout of EC1 using the EF of the non-dominant limb, followed by EC2 using the EF of the dominant limb, produced CL-RBE and decreased arterial stiffness. However, these effects were not observed when EC1 was performed using the dominant EF, followed by EC2 using the non-dominant EF. Therefore, the results of the present study can provide a useful reference for investigators of EC-induced muscle damage.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 體育學
Reference
  1. 陳信良、曾暐晉、黃冠菱、陳忠慶(2011)。肘屈肌群離心運動引起肌肉損傷對肱動脈血管功能的影響。運動生理暨體能學報,13,33-45。
    連結:
  2. 曾暐晉、陳忠慶、陳信良(2012)。最大等速離心運動引起肌肉損傷對速度發展率的影響。體育學報,45(1),19-30。
    連結:
  3. 曾暐晉、黃冠菱、黃啟煌、陳信良(2015)。長期漸增式離心運動訓練對高齡者下肢肌力與功能性體適能之影響。體育學報,48(2),159-169。
    連結:
  4. 黃君秦、蔡政霖、王鶴森、丁詩同、林信甫(2015)。不同型態離心運動對脈波傳導速率與脂締素之影響。體育學報,48(1),19-32。
    連結:
  5. Barnes, J. N.,Trombold, J. R.,Dhindsa, M.,Lin, H. F.,Tanaka, H.(2010).Arterial stiffening following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.Journal of Applied Physiology,109,1102-1108.
  6. Black, C. D.,McCully, K. K.(2008).Muscle injury after repeated bouts of voluntary and electrically stimulated exercise.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,40(9),1605-1615.
  7. Chen, T. C.,Chen, H. L.,Lin, M. J.,Wu, C. J.,Nosaka, K.(2009).Muscle damage responses of the elbow flexors to four maximal eccentric exercise bouts performed every 4 weeks.European Journal of Applied Physiology,106,267-275.
  8. Chen, T. C.,Chen, H. L.,Lin, M. J.,Wu, C. J.,Nosaka, K.(2010).Potent protective effect conferred by four bouts of low intensity eccentric exercise.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,42(5),1004-1012.
  9. Chen, T. C.,Chen, H. L.,Liu, Y. C.,Nosaka, K.(2014).Eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage of pre-adolescent and adolescent boys in comparison to young men.European Journal of Applied Physiology,114,1183-1195.
  10. Chen, T. C.,Nosaka, K.(2006).Effects of number of eccentric muscle actions on first and second bouts of eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors.Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport,9(1-2),57-66.
  11. Chen, T. C.,Nosaka, K.,Sacco, P.(2007).Intensity of eccentric exercise shift of optimum angle and the magnitude of repeated bout effect.Journal of Applied Physiology,102(3),992-999.
  12. Choi, Y.,Akazawa, N.,Miyaki, A.,Song, G. R.,Shiraki, H.,Ajisaka, R.,Maeda, S.(2014).Acute effect of high-intensity eccentric exercise on vascular endothelial function in young men.Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
  13. Clarkson, P. M.,Nosaka, K.,Braun, B.(1992).Muscle function after exercise-induced muscle damage and rapid adaptation.Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise,24(5),512-520.
  14. DeVan, A. E.,Anton, M. M.,Cook, J. N.,Neidre, D. B.,Cortez-Cooper, M. Y.,Tanaka, H.(2005).Acute effects of resistance exercise on arterial compliance.Journal of Applied Physiology,98,2287-2291.
  15. Howatson, G.,van Someren, K. A.(2007).Evidence of a contralateral repeated bout effect after maximal eccentric contractions.European Journal of Applied Physiology,101,207-214.
  16. Lehmann, E. D.,Parker, J. R.,Hopkins, K. D.,Taylor, M. G.,Gosling, R. G.(1993).Validation and reproducibility of pressure-corrected aortic distensibility measurements using pulse-wave-velocity Doppler ultrasound.Journal of Biomedical Engineering,15(3),221-228.
  17. Miura, H.,Nakagawa, E.,Takahashi, Y.(2008).Influence of group training frequency on arterial stiffness in elderly women.European Journal of Applied Physiology,104,1039-1044.
  18. Miyachi, M.(2013).Effects of resistance training on arterial stiffness: A meta-analysis.British Journal of Sports Medicine,47(6),393-396.
  19. Nosaka, K.,Aoki, M. S.(2011).Repeated bout effect: Research update and future perspective.Brazilian Journal of Biomotricity,5(1),5-15.
  20. Nosaka, K.,Newton, M.(2002).Difference in the magnitude of muscle damage between maximal and submaximal eccentric loading.Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,16(2),202-208.
  21. Nosaka, K.,Newton, M. J.,Sacco, P.(2005).Attenuation of protective effect against eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology,30(5),529-542.
  22. Nosaka, K.,Sakamoto, K.,Newton, M.,Sacco, P.(2001).The repeated bout effect of reduced-load eccentric exercise on elbow flexor muscle damage.European Journal of Applied Physiology,85(1-2),34-40.
  23. Okamoto, T.,Masuhara, M.,Ikuta, K.(2006).Effects of eccentric and concentric resistance training on arterial stiffness.Journal of Human Hypertension,20,348-354.
  24. O'Rourke, M. F.,Hashimoto, J.(2008).Arterial stiffness: A modifiable cardiovascular risk factor?.Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention,28(4),225-237.
  25. Safar, M. E.,London, G. M.(2000).Therapeutic studies and arterial stiffness in hypertension: Recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension.Journal of Hypertension,18(11),1527-1535.
  26. Sbriccoli, P.,Felici, F.,Rosponi, A.,Aliotta, A.,Castellano, V.,Mazza, C.,Bernardi, M.,Marchetti, M.(2001).Exercise induced muscle damage and recovery assessed by means of linear and non-linear sEMG analysis and ultrasonography.Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology,11(2),73-83.
  27. Stacy, M. R.,Bladon, K. J.,Lawrence, J. R.,McGlinchy, S. A.,Scheuermann, B. W.(2013).Serial assessment of local peripheral vascular function after eccentric exercise.Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism,38(12),1181-1186.
  28. Starbuck, C.,Eston, R. G.(2012).Exercise-induced muscle damage and the repeated bout effect: Evidence for cross transfer.European Journal of Applied Physiology,112(3),1005-1013.
  29. Sugawara, J.,Hayashi, K.,Yokoi, T.,Cortez-Cooper, M. Y.,DeVan, A. E.,Anton, M .A.(2005).Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity: An index of central arterial stiffness?.Journal of Human Hypertension,19,401-406.
  30. Xin, L.,Hyldahl, R. D.,Chipkin, S. R.,Clarkson, P. M.(2014).A contralateral repeated bout effect attenuates induction of NF-κB DNA binding following eccentric exercise.Journal of Applied Physiology,116(11),1473-1480.
  31. 黃冠菱、曾暐晉、陳信良、林明儒、吳昶潤、柯學謙、陳忠慶(2010)。反覆性等速離心收縮訓練對血流反應的影響。2010 國際運動生理及體能領域學術研討會,臺北市,臺灣=Taipei City, Taiwan:
Times Cited
  1. 陳信良、陳忠慶、林明儒、周宇傑(2018)。離心運動引起不同程度血液肌酸激酶個別差異與肌肉損傷相關評估指標之關係。體育學報,51(1),13-24。
  2. 黃泯珏、陳忠慶(2017)。預先不同強度離心運動對產生重複訓練效應之探討。嘉大體育健康休閒期刊,16(1),121-135。