Justice and Redistribution among Cohorts: Perceptions of Just Earnings among Age and Economic Cohorts
年齡 ； 經濟世代 ； 交叉分類隨機效果模型 ； 分配正義 ； 薪資公平正義認知 ； age ； economic cohort ； cross-classified random-effects model ； redistributive justice ； perception of just earnings
|Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication||
23卷1期（2019 / 06 / 01）
103 - 158
本文對於世代的劃分是著眼於在不同的經濟發展階段成年的民眾，運用薪資公平正義認知的經驗性資料來檢視世代之間對分配正義的認知。方法上本文運用交叉分類隨機效果模型（cross-classified random effects model），來緩解因年齡與世代兩者高度共線關係所導致估計值失真的問題。研究發現薪資公平正義認知不但具有世代之間的差異，同時在年齡群組上也呈現出明顯的不同。其次，個人層次解釋變數的效果上，男性、有婚姻關係、高教育年限、自認為是上層社會階級、以及大陸各省市族群對自身薪資公平正義認知較高。這些傳統上屬於社會優勢族群在資源與機會的取得上具有優勢，產生的結果就直接反應在對自身薪資收入的感受。另外，薪資公平正義認知不同年齡層之間呈現出生命週期效果。20－29歲年齡層的民眾是「薪情」最不美麗的一群，30歲以後民眾才漸漸地滿意自己的薪資。相對的，不同經濟世代間的薪資公平認知呈現出兩極的發展。這樣一個世代正義的樣態有可能民眾對經濟全球化下，產業結構轉變造成薪資結構變化的反應。
Previous empirical studies in politics used to regard people as being part of the same political cohort if they grew up in the same political context. This study argues that the concept of a political cohort is inappropriate in explaining differences in the perception of just earnings among cohorts. Given this, the concept of an economic cohort is used in this study and economic cohorts refer to those who grew up in the same economic context. Methodologically, this study utilizes the cross-classified random-effects model to scrutinize perceptions of redistributive justice among economic cohorts because this model is able to correct biased estimators caused by the severe multicollinearity between age groups and cohorts. According to the empirical results, different economic cohorts possess varying perspectives on what just earnings are, while people in different age groups also exhibit significant diversity in their perceptions of just earnings. Secondly, at the individual level, some explanatory variables such as male, marital status, a higher level of education, subjective higher social class, and ethnicity (mainlander) are more likely to regard earnings as over-rewarded. Finally, the perceptions of just earnings reflect the life cycle effect among different age groups. People aged 20 to 29 are those who are most dissatisfied with their earnings, whereas people over the age of 30 gradually become more satisfied with their rewards. In general, senior economic cohorts are more likely to regard their earnings or income as over-rewarded injustice, while junior economic cohorts exhibit a different perspective and regard their income as under-rewarded injustice. The diversity of perceptions of just earnings between senior and junior economic cohorts may be due to changes in income structure caused by economic globalization or industrial change.