Title

如何讓線上顧客更忠誠?顧客感恩的中介效果

Translated Titles

How Can Online Customers Be More Loyal? The Mediating Effect of Customer Gratitude

DOI

10.6504/JMBR.201712_34(4).0006

Authors

施麗婷(Li-Ting Shih);黃明新(Min-Hsin Huang)

Key Words

網路購物 ; 顧客感恩 ; 關係行銷 ; 關係利益 ; 線上顧客忠誠度 ; online shopping ; customer gratitude ; relationship marketing ; relationship benefit ; online shopping

PublicationName

管理學報

Volume or Term/Year and Month of Publication

34卷4期(2017 / 12 / 01)

Page #

607 - 631

Content Language

繁體中文;英文

Chinese Abstract

顧客感恩是關係行銷理論中,被新提出另一個影響買賣雙方關係的重要中介因子。儘管顧客感恩的議題曾被探討,然而,在網路與社群媒體的環境下,仍缺乏相關文獻的研究。本文根據社會交換理論的互惠原則,以網路購物為範疇,建構顧客感恩的完整模型。模型以關係利益為因,顧客感恩為中介,探討其對顧客忠誠度的影響。研究中蒐集網路購物平台的顧客資料,以結構方程模式來驗證所提出的理論模型;尤其,模型中將顧客忠誠度分為態度忠誠和行為忠誠,並分別以問卷調查資料和顧客的實際購買次數與金額來衡量。研究結果顯示,顧客感恩對顧客忠誠度有正向影響,在三種關係利益(信任利益、社會利益、特殊利益)中,社會利益對顧客感恩有最大的影響效果;此外,調節效果分析發現,感恩人格特質能強化信任利益對顧客感恩的影響。

English Abstract

Customer gratitude is a new construct that has been found to play an important role in buyer-seller relationships. Recent studies on relationship marketing have investigated customer gratitude, but none of the extant literature has examined customer gratitude in an online shopping context. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antecedents and consequences of customer gratitude in the context of online shopping. Based on the social exchange theory's reciprocity norm, our theoretical framework considers customer loyalty as a consequence of consumer gratitude. We also consider relationship benefits to be an antecedent of customer gratitude. More importantly, we incorporate customer loyalty into attitudinal and behavioral loyalty, which are measured via customer survey data and purchase record data, respectively. Using data gathered from members of an online shopping platform, the results of this research show that, among the three types of relational benefits (i.e., confidence, social benefits, and special treatment), social benefits have the largest impact on customer gratitude. The analysis further shows that the personality trait of gratitude moderates the path between confidence benefits and customer gratitude.

Topic Category 社會科學 > 管理學
Reference
  1. Adjei, M. T.,Noble, S. M.,Noble, C. H.(2010).The influence of c2c communications in online brand communities on customer purchase behavior.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,38(6),634-653.
  2. Algoe, S. B.,Haidt, J.,Gable, S. L.(2008).Beyond reciprocity: Gratitude and relationships in everyday life.Emotion,8(3),425-429.
  3. Anderson, J. C.,Gerbing, D. W.(1988).Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach.Psychological Bulletin,103(3),411-423.
  4. Auh, S.,Bell, S. J.,McLeod, C. S.,Shih, E.(2007).Coproduction and customer loyalty in financial services.Journal of Retailing,83(3),359-370.
  5. Barnes, J. G.(1994).The issue of establishing relationships with customers in service companies: When are relationships feasible and what form should they take.third annual Frontiers in Services Conference,Nashville, TN.:
  6. Baron, R. M.,Kenny, D. A.(1986).The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,51(6),1173-1182.
  7. Bartlett, M. Y.,DeSteno, D.(2006).Gratitude and prosocial behavior: Helping when it costs you.Psychological Science,17(4),319-325.
  8. Becker, L. C.(2014).Reciprocity (routledge revivals).Oxon, UK:Routledge.
  9. Bendapudi, N.,Berry, L. L.(1997).Customers' motivations for maintaining relationships with service providers.Journal of Retailing,73(1),15-37.
  10. Berry, L. L.(1995).Relationship marketing of servicesgrowing interest, emerging perspectives.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,23(4),236-245.
  11. Bitner, M. J.(1995).Building service relationships: It's all about promises.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,23(4),246-251.
  12. Chang, M. K.,Cheung, W.,Tang, M.(2013).Building trust online: Interactions among trust building mechanisms.Information & Management,50(7),439-445.
  13. Chaudhuri, A.,Holbrook, M. B.(2001).The chain of effects from brand trust and brand affect to brand performance: The role of brand loyalty.Journal of Marketing,65(2),81-93.
  14. Chou, S.-W.(2010).Why do members contribute knowledge to online communities?.Online Information Review,34(6),829-854.
  15. Chu, K.-M.(2009).A study of members' helping behaviors in online community.Internet Research,19(3),279-292.
  16. Dekimpe, M. G.,Steenkamp, J.-B. E.,Mellens, M.,Abeele, P. V.(1997).Decline and variability in brand loyalty.International Journal of Research in Marketing,14(5),405-420.
  17. Emmons, R. A.(Ed.),McCullough, M. E.(Ed.)(2004).The psychology of gratitude.New York, NY:Oxford University Press.
  18. Emmons, R. A.,McCullough, M. E.(2004).The psychology of gratitude.New York, NY:Oxford University Press.
  19. Emmons, R. A.,McCullough, M. E.(2003).Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,84(2),377-389.
  20. Fazal-e-Hasan, S. M.,Lings, I. N.,Mortimer, G.,Neale L.(2017).How gratitude influences customer word-ofmouth intentions and involvement: The mediating role of affective commitment.Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice,25(2),200-211.
  21. Fornell, C.(1992).A national customer satisfaction barometer: The Swedish experience.Journal of Marketing,56(1),6-21.
  22. Froh, J. J.,Kashdan, T. B.,Ozimkowski, K. M.,Miller, N.(2009).Who benefits the most from a gratitude intervention in children and adolescents? Examining positive affect as a moderator.The Journal of Positive Psychology,4(5),408-422.
  23. Garbarino, E.,Johnson, M. S.(1999).The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships.Journal of Marketing,63(2),70-87.
  24. Gerbing, D. W.,Anderson, J. C.(1988).An updated paradigm for scale development incorporating unidimensionality and its assessment.Journal of Marketing Research,25(2),186-192.
  25. Goodwin, C.(1996).Communality as a dimension of service relationships.Journal of Consumer Psychology,5(4),387-415.
  26. Goodwin, C.,Gremler, D. D.(1996).Friendship over the counter: How social aspects of service encounters influence consumer service loyalty.Advances in Services Marketing and Management,5,247-282.
  27. Gouldner, A. W.(1960).The norm of reciprocity: A preliminary statement.American Sociological Review,25(2),161-178.
  28. Greene, W. H.(2000).Econometric analysis.New Jersey:Prentice-Hall, Inc..
  29. Gremler, D. D.,Gwinner, K. P.(2000).Customeremployee rapport in service relationships.Journal of Service Research,3(1),82-104.
  30. Guiltinan, J. P.(1989).A classification of switching costs with implications for relationship marketing.American Marketing Association Winter Educators' Conference,Chicago, IL.:
  31. Gwinner, K. P.,Gremler, D. D.,Bitner, M. J.(1998).Relational benefits in services industries: The customer's perspective.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,26(2),101-114.
  32. Hair, J. F.,Black, W. C.,Babin, B. J.,Anderson, R. E.(2010).Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective.New Jersey:Pearson Prentice Hall.
  33. Hennig-Thurau, T.(Ed.),Hansn, U.(Ed.)(2000).Relationship Marketing: Gaining competitive advantage through customer satisfaction and customer retention.Berlin, Germany:Springer.
  34. Hennig-Thurau, T.,Gwinner, K. P.,Gremler, D. D.(2002).Understanding relationship marketing outcomes an integration of relational benefits and relationship quality.Journal of Service Research,4(3),230-247.
  35. Hunter, M. L.,Soberman, D. A.(2010).'The equalizer': Measuring and explaining the impact of online communities on consumer markets.Corporate Reputation Review,13(4),225-247.
  36. Jacoby, J.,Kyner, D. B.(1973).Brand loyalty vs. repeat purchasing behavior.Journal of Marketing Research,10(1),1-9.
  37. Kim, D. J.,Ferrin, D. L.,Rao, H. R.(2009).Trust and satisfaction, two stepping stones for successful ecommerce relationships: A longitudinal exploration.Information Systems Research,20(2),237-257.
  38. Kolyesnikova, N.,Dodd, T. H.(2008).Effects of winery visitor group size on gratitude and obligation.Journal of Travel Research,47(1),104-112.
  39. Kozlenkova, I. V.,Palmatier, R. W.,Fang, E.,Xiao, B.,Huang, M.(2017).Online relationship formation.Journal of Marketing,81(3),21-40.
  40. Kumar, A.,Bezawada, R.,Rishika, R.,Janakiraman, R.,Kannan, P. K.(2016).From social to sale: The effects of firm-generated content in social media on customer behavior.Journal of Marketing,80(1),7-25.
  41. Liu, P. J.,Lamberton, C.,Haws, K. L.(2015).Should firms use small financial benefits to express appreciation to consumers? Understanding and avoiding trivialization effects.Journal of Marketing,79(3),74-90.
  42. Lyubomirsky, S.,Sheldon, K. M.,Schkade, D.(2005).Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change.Review of General Psychology,9(2),111-131.
  43. McCullough, M. E.,Emmons, R. A.,Tsang, J.-A.(2002).The grateful disposition: A conceptual and empirical topography.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,82(1),112-127.
  44. McCullough, M. E.,Kilpatrick, S. D.,Emmons, R. A.,Larson, D. B.(2001).Is gratitude a moral affect?.Psychological Bulletin,127(2),249-266.
  45. McCullough, M. E.,Tsang, J.-A.,Emmons, R. A.(2004).Gratitude in intermediate affective terrain: Links of grateful moods to individual differences and daily emotional experience.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,86(2),295-309.
  46. Monroe, K. B.,Guiltinan, J. P.(1975).A path-analytic exploration of retail patronage influences.Journal of Consumer Research,2(1),19-28.
  47. Morales, A. C.(2005).Giving firms an "E" for effort: Consumer responses to high-effort firms.Journal of Consumer Research,31(4),806-812.
  48. Morgan, R. M.,Hunt, S. D.(1994).The commitmenttrust theory of relationship marketing.Journal of Marketing,58(3),20-38.
  49. Motameni, R.,Nordstrom, R.(2014).Correlating the social media functionalities to marketing goals and strategies.Journal of Marketing Management,2(3-4),27-48.
  50. Nevin, J. R.(1995).Relationship marketing and distribution channels: exploring fundamental issues.Journal of the Academy of marketing Science,23(4),327-334.
  51. Nunnally, J. C.(1967).Psychometric theory.New York, NY:McGraw-Hill.
  52. Oliver, R. L.(1997).Loyalty and profit: Long-term effects of satisfaction.New York, NY:McGraw-Hill Companies.
  53. Overwalle, F.V.,Mervielde, I.,De Schuyter, J.(1995).Structural modeling of the relationships between attributional dimensions, emotions, and performance of college freshman.Cognition & Emotion,9,59-85.
  54. Palmatier, R. W.,Dant, R. P.,Grewal, D.,Evans, K. R.(2006).Factors influencing the effectiveness of relationship marketing: A meta-analysis.Journal of Marketing,70(4),136-153.
  55. Palmatier, R. W.,Jarvis, C. B.,Bechkoff, J. R.,Kardes, F. R.(2009).The role of customer gratitude in relationship marketing.Journal of Marketing,73(5),1-18.
  56. Park, C.-H.,Kim, Y.-G.(2003).Identifying key factors affecting consumer purchase behavior in an online shopping context.International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management,31(1),16-29.
  57. Pavlou, P. A.,Gefen, D.(2004).Building effective online marketplaces with institution-based trust.Information Systems Research,15(1),37-59.
  58. Peng, G.,Woodlock, P.(2009).The impact of network and recency effects on the adoption of e-collaboration technologies in online communities.Electronic Markets,19(4),201-210.
  59. Peppers, D.,Rogers, M.(2004).Managing customer relationships: A strategic framework.Hoboken, NJ:John Wiley & Sons.
  60. Perugini, M.,Gallucci, M.,Presaghi, F.,Ercolani, A. P.(2003).The personal norm of reciprocity.European Journal of Personality,17(4),251-283.
  61. Podsakoff, P. M.,MacKenzie, S. B.,Lee, J.-Y.,Podsakoff, N. P.(2003).Common method biases in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies.Journal of Applied Psychology,88(5),879-903.
  62. Raggio, R. D.,Folse, J. A. G.(2009).Gratitude works: Its impact and the mediating role of affective commitment in driving positive outcomes.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,37(4),455-469.
  63. Raggio, R. D.,Walz, A. M.,Godbole, M. B.,Folse, J. A. G.(2014).Gratitude in relationship marketing: Theoretical development and directions for future research.European Journal of Marketing,48(1/2),2-24.
  64. Ragins, B. R.,Lyness, K. S.,Williams, L. J.,Winkel, D.(2014).Life spillovers: The spillover of fear of home foreclosure to the workplace.Personnel Psychology,67(4),763-800.
  65. Reichheld, F. F.,Teal, T.(1996).The loyalty effect: The hidden force behind growth, profits, and lasting value.Boston, MA:Harvard Business School Press.
  66. Reynolds, K. E.,Beatty, S. E.(1999).Customer benefits and company consequences of customer-salesperson relationships in retailing.Journal of Retailing,75(1),11-32.
  67. Rossi, C.(2011).Online consumer communities, collaborative learning and innovation.Measuring Business Excellence,15(3),46-62.
  68. Seligman, M. E. P.,Steen, T. A.,Park, N.,Peterson, C.(2005).Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions.American Psychologist,60(5),410-421.
  69. Selnes, F.(1993).An examination of the effect of product performance on brand reputation, satisfaction and loyalty.European Journal of Marketing,27(9),19-35.
  70. Shin, J.,Sudhir, K.,Yoon, D.-H.(2012).When to "fire" customers: Customer cost-based pricing.Management Science,58(5),932-947.
  71. Sobel, M. E.(1982).Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models.Sociological Methodology,13,290-312.
  72. Sweeney, J. C.,Webb, D. A.(2007).How functional, psychological, and social relationship benefits influence individual and firm commitment to the relationship.Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing,22(7),474-488.
  73. Szymanski, D. M.,Hise, R. T.(2000).E-satisfaction: An initial examination.Journal of Retailing,76(3),309-322.
  74. Toral, S. L.,MartínezTorres, M. R.,Barrero, F.,Cortés, F.(2009).An empirical study of the driving forces behind online communities.Internet Research,19(4),378-392.
  75. Trivers, R.(1985).Social evolution.Menlo Park, CA:Benjamin/Cummings Publishing.
  76. Tsang, J.-A.(2006).Brief report gratitude and prosocial behaviour: An experimental test of gratitude.Cognition & Emotion,20(1),138-148.
  77. Turban, E.,King, D.,Viehland, D.,Lee, J.(2005).Electronic commerce 2006: A managerial perspective.Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall.
  78. Wang, G. G.(2010).Theorizing e-learning participation: A study of the HRD online communities in the USA.Journal of European Industrial Training,34(4),344-364.
  79. Watkins, P.,Scheer, J.,Ovnicek, M.,Kolts, R.(2006).The debt of gratitude: Dissociating gratitude and indebtedness.Cognition & Emotion,20(2),217-241.
  80. Wood, A. M.,Maltby, J.,Stewart, N.,Linley, P. A.,Joseph, S.(2008).A social-cognitive model of trait and state levels of gratitude.Emotion,8(2),281-290.
  81. Yen, H. J. R.,Gwinner, K. P.(2003).Internet retail customer loyalty: The mediating role of relational benefits.International Journal of Service Industry Management,14(5),483-500.
  82. Zeithaml, V. A.,Berry, L. L.,Parasuraman, A.(1996).The behavioral consequences of service quality.Journal of Marketing,60(2),31-46.
  83. Zhang, W.,Watts, S. A.(2008).Capitalizing on content: Information adoption in two online communities.Journal of the Association for Information Systems,9(2),73-94.
  84. 李敦仁、余民寧(2005)。社經地位、手足數目、家庭教育資源與教育成就結構關係模式之驗證:以TEPS 資料庫資料為例。臺灣教育社會學研究,5(2),1-47。
Times Cited
  1. 蔡進雄(2019)。校長的正向心理資本:國民中小學校長感恩量表建構與發展初探。教育科學期刊,18(2),131-157。